Preschool Children’s Behavioral Tendency toward Social Indirect Reciprocity
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{"title"=>"Preschool Children's Behavioral Tendency toward Social Indirect Reciprocity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mayuko", "last_name"=>"Kato-Shimizu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55817604700"}, {"first_name"=>"Kenji", "last_name"=>"Onishi", "scopus_author_id"=>"35113603000"}, {"first_name"=>"Tadahiro", "last_name"=>"Kanazawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202446371"}, {"first_name"=>"Toshihiko", "last_name"=>"Hinobayashi", "scopus_author_id"=>"8940641300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84881364628", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881364628", "pmid"=>"23951040", "pui"=>"369535384", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0070915"}, "id"=>"c1ad5dcb-94fa-3e80-a265-52fa9ecdc3bb", "abstract"=>"Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/preschool-childrens-behavioral-tendency-toward-social-indirect-reciprocity", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Psychology"=>27, "Social Sciences"=>9, "Computer Science"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>27}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Japan"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145992"], "description"=>"<p>We analyzed the data in 566 sessions (283 PP-MC pairs, focal child = 12, bystander = 56, focal-bystander dyad = 144) in Analysis 1, Model 1. The generalized linear mixed model with Poisson error structures was used in the analysis. In the linear model with categorical independent variables, one of the levels was treated as a criterion, and the parameters of the other levels were estimated as the difference from the criterion level. In this model, in the factor “context”, the level “MC” was treated as a criterion, and the coefficient of “PP” was shown as the differences from the level of “MC”.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Mental health", "psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "behavior", "emotions", "Cognitive psychology", "Social psychology", "prosocial", "bystanders"], "article_id"=>766768, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Mayuko Kato-Shimizu", "Kenji Onishi", "Tadahiro Kanazawa", "Toshihiko Hinobayashi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_independent_factors_on_the_number_of_prosocial_behavior_from_bystanders_in_Analysis_1_Model_1_/766768", "title"=>"Influence of independent factors on the number of prosocial behavior from bystanders in Analysis 1, Model 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:17:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145990"], "description"=>"<p>Data are represented as session means ±1 SE of the actual measured value of frequencies of prosocial behavior and affiliative behavior for each context. <sup>***</sup><i>p</i><.001. The <i>p</i> values were calculated from the estimated values in Analysis1: Model 1 and Model 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Mental health", "psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "behavior", "emotions", "Cognitive psychology", "Social psychology", "frequencies", "prosocial", "affiliative"], "article_id"=>766765, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Mayuko Kato-Shimizu", "Kenji Onishi", "Tadahiro Kanazawa", "Toshihiko Hinobayashi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Actual_frequencies_of_prosocial_and_affiliative_behavior_per_hour_in_terms_of_context_/766765", "title"=>"Actual frequencies of prosocial and affiliative behavior per hour in terms of context.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:17:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145991"], "description"=>"<p>Definitions of coded prosocial behaviors and affiliative behaviors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Mental health", "psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "behavior", "emotions", "Cognitive psychology", "Social psychology", "coded", "prosocial", "behaviors", "affiliative"], "article_id"=>766766, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Mayuko Kato-Shimizu", "Kenji Onishi", "Tadahiro Kanazawa", "Toshihiko Hinobayashi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Definitions_of_coded_prosocial_behaviors_and_affiliative_behaviors_/766766", "title"=>"Definitions of coded prosocial behaviors and affiliative behaviors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:17:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145997", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1146000", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1146001", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1146003", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1146004", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1146006"], "description"=>"<div><p>Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers’ prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers’ prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children’s prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers’ prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders’ positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander’s prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler’s behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Mental health", "psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "behavior", "emotions", "Cognitive psychology", "Social psychology", "indirect"], "article_id"=>766772, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Mayuko Kato-Shimizu", "Kenji Onishi", "Tadahiro Kanazawa", "Toshihiko Hinobayashi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Preschool_Children_8217_s_Behavioral_Tendency_toward_Social_Indirect_Reciprocity_/766772", "title"=>"Preschool Children’s Behavioral Tendency toward Social Indirect Reciprocity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:17:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145994"], "description"=>"<p>We analyzed the data in 566 sessions (283 PP-MC pairs, focal child = 12, bystander = 56, focal-bystander dyad = 144) in Analysis 1, Model 2. In the factor “context”, the parameters were shown in the same way as <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915#pone-0070915-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Animal behavior", "Zoology", "Mental health", "psychology", "Developmental psychology", "pediatrics", "Child development", "behavior", "emotions", "Cognitive psychology", "Social psychology", "affiliative", "bystanders"], "article_id"=>766769, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Mayuko Kato-Shimizu", "Kenji Onishi", "Tadahiro Kanazawa", "Toshihiko Hinobayashi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070915.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_independent_factors_on_the_number_of_affiliative_behavior_from_bystanders_in_Analysis_1_Model_2_/766769", "title"=>"Influence of independent factors on the number of affiliative behavior from bystanders in Analysis 1, Model 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:17:06"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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