Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes
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{"title"=>"Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jean Paul A", "last_name"=>"Hobbs", "scopus_author_id"=>"8872807200"}, {"first_name"=>"Ashley J.", "last_name"=>"Frisch", "scopus_author_id"=>"8587199400"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin M.", "last_name"=>"Ford", "scopus_author_id"=>"55817752200"}, {"first_name"=>"Michele", "last_name"=>"Thums", "scopus_author_id"=>"8361775600"}, {"first_name"=>"Pablo", "last_name"=>"Saenz-Agudelo", "scopus_author_id"=>"26429945900"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathryn A.", "last_name"=>"Furby", "scopus_author_id"=>"55540427400"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael L.", "last_name"=>"Berumen", "scopus_author_id"=>"8632427600"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"23951056", "sgr"=>"84881364921", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0070966", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881364921", "pui"=>"369535513", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"050c9cde-b1c0-3691-af59-addea25ecd7b", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species) at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%); however, this percentage was much higher (19-100%) during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked to the ability of host anemones to cope with rising sea temperatures associated with climate change.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/taxonomic-spatial-temporal-patterns-bleaching-anemones-inhabited-anemonefishes", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147211"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Rising sea temperatures are causing significant destruction to coral reef ecosystems due to coral mortality from thermally-induced bleaching (loss of symbiotic algae and/or their photosynthetic pigments). Although bleaching has been intensively studied in corals, little is known about the causes and consequences of bleaching in other tropical symbiotic organisms.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>This study used underwater visual surveys to investigate bleaching in the 10 species of anemones that host anemonefishes. Bleaching was confirmed in seven anemone species (with anecdotal reports of bleaching in the other three species) at 10 of 19 survey locations spanning the Indo-Pacific and Red Sea, indicating that anemone bleaching is taxonomically and geographically widespread. In total, bleaching was observed in 490 of the 13,896 surveyed anemones (3.5%); however, this percentage was much higher (19–100%) during five major bleaching events that were associated with periods of elevated water temperatures and coral bleaching. There was considerable spatial variation in anemone bleaching during most of these events, suggesting that certain sites and deeper waters might act as refuges. Susceptibility to bleaching varied between species, and in some species, bleaching caused reductions in size and abundance.</p><p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>Anemones are long-lived with low natural mortality, which makes them particularly vulnerable to predicted increases in severity and frequency of bleaching events. Population viability will be severely compromised if anemones and their symbionts cannot acclimate or adapt to rising sea temperatures. Anemone bleaching also has negative effects to other species, particularly those that have an obligate relationship with anemones. These effects include reductions in abundance and reproductive output of anemonefishes. Therefore, the future of these iconic and commercially valuable coral reef fishes is inextricably linked to the ability of host anemones to cope with rising sea temperatures associated with climate change.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "spatial", "temporal", "patterns", "bleaching", "anemones", "inhabited"], "article_id"=>767678, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Taxonomic_Spatial_and_Temporal_Patterns_of_Bleaching_in_Anemones_Inhabited_by_Anemonefishes_/767678", "title"=>"Taxonomic, Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Bleaching in Anemones Inhabited by Anemonefishes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147208"], "description"=>"<p>All models have individual colony coded as a random effect (1|id). The models are ranked against the intercept-only model (NULL model). Also shown is the number of estimable model parameters (<i>k</i>), maximum log-likelihood (LL), Akaike’s information criterion corrected for small samples (AIC<i><sub>c</sub></i>), the difference in AIC<i><sub>c</sub></i> for each model from the top-ranked model (ΔAIC) and the model weight (<i>w</i>AIC<i><sub>c</sub></i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "linear", "mixed-effects", "anemone", "abundance", "explained", "bleaching"], "article_id"=>767675, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ranked_linear_mixed_effects_models_of_anemone_abundance_explained_by_date_bleaching_category_bleach_cat_and_the_interaction_between_these_two_variables_/767675", "title"=>"Ranked linear mixed-effects models of anemone abundance explained by date, bleaching category (bleach_cat) and the interaction between these two variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147207"], "description"=>"<p>Anemone data is combined for all sites and depths (3 to 20 m) at each location. The five major anemone bleaching events are indicated in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "bleached", "anemones"], "article_id"=>767674, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_number_and_percentage_of_bleached_host_anemones_at_each_study_location_/767674", "title"=>"The number and percentage of bleached host anemones at each study location.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147202"], "description"=>"<p>Mean depth (±SE) of bleached and unbleached host anemones during the major bleaching event at Papua New Guinea in 2009. (A) <i>Heteractis crispa</i> and (B) <i>Stichodactyla haddoni</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "anemone", "bleaching", "papua"], "article_id"=>767669, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Depth_variation_in_anemone_bleaching_at_Papua_New_Guinea_/767669", "title"=>"Depth variation in anemone bleaching at Papua New Guinea.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147196"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Archival sea surface temperature for Christmas Island obtained from Daily Optimal Interpolation dataset (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966#pone.0070966-Maynard1\" target=\"_blank\">[34]</a> available at <a href=\"http://coastwatch.pfeg.noaa.gov\" target=\"_blank\">http://coastwatch.pfeg.noaa.gov</a>). <i>in situ</i> measurements of water temperature at (B) 11 m depth at Christmas Island and (C) at 6 m depth at Keppel Islands, based on Australian Institute of Marine Science data. These temperature datasets coincide with major bleaching events at (A) Christmas Island 2005, (B) Christmas Island 2010 and (C) Keppel Islands 2011. For the Keppel Islands (C), the dotted-dashed line represents the summer average (2007–2011), while the solid line represents the 2011–2012 summer. The survey period (December 2011) is indicated with an arrow. Temperature data were unavailable for short periods in February and March 2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "anemone", "bleaching"], "article_id"=>767663, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seawater_temperature_during_anemone_bleaching_events_/767663", "title"=>"Seawater temperature during anemone bleaching events.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147210"], "description"=>"<p>Survey details for the nineteen study locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "details", "nineteen"], "article_id"=>767677, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survey_details_for_the_nineteen_study_locations_/767677", "title"=>"Survey details for the nineteen study locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147195"], "description"=>"<p>The colour of the unbleached anemone is the typical colour of <i>E. quadricolor</i> at the Keppel Islands that is seen outside of major bleaching events.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "anemones", "categorised", "unbleached", "bleached", "bleaching", "keppel", "december"], "article_id"=>767662, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Entacmaea_quadricolor_anemones_categorised_as_unbleached_left_and_bleached_right_during_the_major_bleaching_event_at_the_Keppel_Islands_December_2011_/767662", "title"=>"<i>Entacmaea quadricolor</i> anemones categorised as unbleached (left) and bleached (right) during the major bleaching event at the Keppel Islands, December 2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147206"], "description"=>"<p>All models have individual colony coded as a random effect (1|id). The models are ranked against the intercept-only model (NULL model). Also shown is the number of estimable model parameters (<i>k</i>), maximum log-likelihood (LL), Akaike’s information criterion corrected for small samples (AIC<i><sub>c</sub></i>), the difference in AIC<i><sub>c</sub></i> for each model from the top-ranked model (ΔAIC) and the model weight (<i>w</i>AIC<i><sub>c</sub></i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "linear", "mixed-effects", "anemone", "explained", "bleaching"], "article_id"=>767673, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ranked_linear_mixed_effects_models_of_anemone_size_explained_by_date_bleaching_category_bleach_cat_and_the_interaction_between_these_two_variables_/767673", "title"=>"Ranked linear mixed-effects models of anemone size explained by date, bleaching category (bleach_cat) and the interaction between these two variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147205"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Mean number (±SE) of anemones per colony, and (B) the mean diameter (±SE) of individual anemones within each colony for <i>Entacmaea quadricolor</i> before (2007, 2009), during (2011), and after (2012) the major anemone bleaching event at the Keppel Islands. Colonies that bleached during the 2011 event are represented by white bars and colonies that did not bleach are represented by black bars. To increase sample size for analyses, data for 2007 and 2009 were combined into the before bleaching period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "abundance", "anemones", "bleaching"], "article_id"=>767672, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_the_abundance_and_size_of_anemones_following_a_bleaching_event_/767672", "title"=>"Changes in the abundance and size of anemones following a bleaching event.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147203"], "description"=>"<p>Number of bleached (white bars) and unbleached (black bars) host anemones encountered in surveys at different depths during the major anemone bleaching events. Data presented for: (A) <i>Cryptodendrum adhaesivum</i> and (B) <i>Heteractis magnifica</i> at Christmas Island, 2010; (C) <i>Entacmaea quadricolor</i> at Keppel Islands, 2011; (D) <i>C. adhaesivum</i> and (E) <i>H. magnifica</i> at Christmas Island, 2005.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "anemone", "bleaching", "christmas", "keppel"], "article_id"=>767670, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Depth_variation_in_anemone_bleaching_at_Christmas_Island_and_the_Keppel_Islands_/767670", "title"=>"Depth variation in anemone bleaching at Christmas Island and the Keppel Islands.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147200"], "description"=>"<p>Number of bleached (white bars) and unbleached (black bars) host anemones encountered in surveys at different sites during the major anemone bleaching events. Data are presented for: (A) <i>Heteractis crispa</i> and (B) <i>Stichodactyla haddoni</i> at Papua New Guinea in 2009; (C) <i>Cryptodendrum adhaesivum</i> and (D) <i>H. magnifica</i> at Christmas Island, 2010; (E) <i>Entacmaea quadricolor</i> at Keppel Islands, 2011; (F) <i>C. adhaesivum</i> and (G) <i>H. magnifica</i> at Christmas Island, 2005. Abbreviations for site names are provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966#pone.0070966.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences", "anemone"], "article_id"=>767667, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_variation_in_anemone_bleaching_/767667", "title"=>"Spatial variation in anemone bleaching.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147199"], "description"=>"<p>Bleached anemones with resident anemonefish: (A) <i>Entacmaea quadricolor</i> inhabited by <i>Premnas biaculeatus</i> (Papua New Guinea) (B) <i>Heteractis magnifica</i> inhabited by <i>Amphiprion perideraion</i> (Christmas Island); (C) <i>Cryptodendrum adhaesivum</i> inhabited by <i>A. clarkii</i> (Christmas Island); (D) <i>Stichodactyla haddoni</i> inhabited by <i>A. polymnus</i> (Papua New Guinea); (E) <i>S. mertensii</i> inhabited by <i>A. clarkii</i> (Christmas Island); (F) <i>H. crispa</i> inhabited by <i>A. clarkii</i> (Bali); (G) <i>S. gigantea</i> (Singapore); (H) <i>Macrodactyla doreensis</i> (Singapore). Photograph credits: P. Saenz-Agudelo (A, D), J. Gilligan (B), J-P Hobbs (C,E), A. Scott (F), R. Tan (G), K. Sheng (H).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Marine ecology", "Coral reefs", "Ecophysiology", "Global change ecology", "Marine biology", "corals", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "marine and aquatic sciences"], "article_id"=>767666, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Paul A. Hobbs", "Ashley J. Frisch", "Benjamin M. Ford", "Michele Thums", "Pablo Saenz-Agudelo", "Kathryn A. Furby", "Michael L. Berumen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070966.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bleached_host_anemones_/767666", "title"=>"Bleached host anemones.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 02:36:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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