Automatic Round-the-Clock Detection of Whales for Mitigation from Underwater Noise Impacts
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{"title"=>"Automatic Round-the-Clock Detection of Whales for Mitigation from Underwater Noise Impacts", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniel P.", "last_name"=>"Zitterbart", "scopus_author_id"=>"14826264400"}, {"first_name"=>"Lars", "last_name"=>"Kindermann", "scopus_author_id"=>"14719250400"}, {"first_name"=>"Elke", "last_name"=>"Burkhardt", "scopus_author_id"=>"14718987500"}, {"first_name"=>"Olaf", "last_name"=>"Boebel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701464964"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84881501392", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0071217", "pui"=>"369566450", "pmid"=>"23951113", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881501392", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"da2d387f-0059-3e96-8824-132dd5c46da2", "abstract"=>"Loud hydroacoustic sources, such as naval mid-frequency sonars or airguns for marine geophysical prospecting, have been increasingly criticized for their possible negative effects on marine mammals and were implicated in several whale stranding events. Competent authorities now regularly request the implementation of mitigation measures, including the shut-down of acoustic sources when marine mammals are sighted within a predefined exclusion zone. Commonly, ship-based marine mammal observers (MMOs) are employed to visually monitor this zone. This approach is personnel-intensive and not applicable during night time, even though most hydroacoustic activities run day and night. This study describes and evaluates an automatic, ship-based, thermographic whale detection system that continuously scans the ship's environs for whale blows. Its performance is independent of daylight and exhibits an almost uniform, omnidirectional detection probability within a radius of 5 km. It outperforms alerted observers in terms of number of detected blows and ship-whale encounters. Our results demonstrate that thermal imaging can be used for reliable and continuous marine mammal protection.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/automatic-roundtheclock-detection-whales-mitigation-underwater-noise-impacts", "reader_count"=>114, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>19, "Student > Master"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>19, "Student > Master"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>22, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>67, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>67}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>22}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Argentina"=>2, "French Guiana"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1150540"], "description"=>"<p>A: Whale blow locations (triangles) relative to the (moving) ship (ship is at center of concentric circles). B: Map of corresponding geo-referenced ship positions (dots) and blow locations (triangles). Color indicates time after first detection.D.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "geography", "geoinformatics", "Remote sensing imagery", "marine and aquatic sciences", "signal processing", "Image processing", "blows", "pod", "humpback"], "article_id"=>770240, "categories"=>["Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Daniel P. Zitterbart", "Lars Kindermann", "Elke Burkhardt", "Olaf Boebel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mapping_of_blows_by_a_pod_of_humpback_whales_/770240", "title"=>"Mapping of blows by a pod of humpback whales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 03:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1150543"], "description"=>"<p>Probability of a whale being at the surface within a detection radius r before it is within the exclusion zone (radius 500 m, acoustic source towed 500 m behind the ship, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217#pone.0071217.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S3</a>) as a function of diving time. Ship speed is assumed to be 4.5 knots. Colored areas indicate different maximum radii over which whales can be reliably detected (1, 3 and 5 km). Upper limits of filled areas correspond to the maximum, lower limits to the minimum known surface times. Mean values for various whale species are indicated by letters: A = Arnoux’s beaked whale, B = Blainville’s beaked whale, b = blue whale, C = Cuvier’s beaked whale, f = fin whale, h = humpback whale, k = killer whale, m = minke whale, n = northern bottlenose whale, p = pilot whale, r = right whale, s = sei whale, sp = sperm whale. Letters are only displayed for a detection radius of 1 km. Within in the blue (3 km) area, circles and dots vertically aligned with letters indicate whether the underlying data represents single measurements (dots) or group averages (circles). Light grey symbols represent odontocetes, black symbols mysticetes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "geography", "geoinformatics", "Remote sensing imagery", "marine and aquatic sciences", "signal processing", "Image processing"], "article_id"=>770243, "categories"=>["Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Daniel P. Zitterbart", "Lars Kindermann", "Elke Burkhardt", "Olaf Boebel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Timeous_availability_/770243", "title"=>"Timeous availability.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 03:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1150544", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1150545", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1150546", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1150547", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1150557"], "description"=>"<div><p>Loud hydroacoustic sources, such as naval mid-frequency sonars or airguns for marine geophysical prospecting, have been increasingly criticized for their possible negative effects on marine mammals and were implicated in several whale stranding events. Competent authorities now regularly request the implementation of mitigation measures, including the shut-down of acoustic sources when marine mammals are sighted within a predefined exclusion zone. Commonly, ship-based marine mammal observers (MMOs) are employed to visually monitor this zone. This approach is personnel-intensive and not applicable during night time, even though most hydroacoustic activities run day and night. This study describes and evaluates an automatic, ship-based, thermographic whale detection system that continuously scans the ship’s environs for whale blows. Its performance is independent of daylight and exhibits an almost uniform, omnidirectional detection probability within a radius of 5 km. It outperforms alerted observers in terms of number of detected blows and ship-whale encounters. Our results demonstrate that thermal imaging can be used for reliable and continuous marine mammal protection.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "geography", "geoinformatics", "Remote sensing imagery", "marine and aquatic sciences", "signal processing", "Image processing", "round-the-clock", "detection", "whales", "mitigation", "underwater"], "article_id"=>770244, "categories"=>["Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Daniel P. Zitterbart", "Lars Kindermann", "Elke Burkhardt", "Olaf Boebel"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Automatic_Round_the_Clock_Detection_of_Whales_for_Mitigation_from_Underwater_Noise_Impacts_/770244", "title"=>"Automatic Round-the-Clock Detection of Whales for Mitigation from Underwater Noise Impacts", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 03:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1150541"], "description"=>"<p>A) 24.03.2012 00:07; 61.11°S 56.36°W; T<sub>water</sub> = 1.3°C; T<sub>air</sub> = −1.7°C; r = 3608 m; B) 28.03.2012 03:27; 61.88°S 60.29°W; T<sub>water</sub> = 1.4°C; T<sub>air</sub> = 2.3°C; r = 3608 m; C) 29.12.2011 01:06; 56.49°S 00.00°E; T<sub>water</sub> = −0.8°C; T<sub>air</sub> = −0.5°C; r = 1116 m; D) 01.01.2012 02:38; 43.96°S 07.44°E; T<sub>water</sub> = 8.8°C; T<sub>air</sub> = 8.7°C; r = 879 m; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217#pone-0071217-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2E:</a> Day-time thermographic (top) and visual (bottom) video snippets of an automatically detected whale blow: 28.12.2011 14:41; 58.65°S 0.02°E; T<sub>water</sub> = −1.5°C; T<sub>air</sub> = −0.6°C; r = 1072 m;</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "geography", "geoinformatics", "Remote sensing imagery", "marine and aquatic sciences", "signal processing", "Image processing", "thermographic", "snippets"], "article_id"=>770241, "categories"=>["Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Daniel P. Zitterbart", "Lars Kindermann", "Elke Burkhardt", "Olaf Boebel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Night_time_thermographic_video_snippets_at_0_2_s_resolution_of_whale_blows_/770241", "title"=>"Night-time thermographic video snippets (at 0.2 s resolution) of whale blows:", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 03:37:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1150542"], "description"=>"<p>A: Cue-based classifier ROC curves for training, testing and two (day and night) validation datasets. AUC values: Training: 0.99; Testing: 0.98; Validation day: 0.90; Validation night: 0.98<b>.</b> B: Lines with error bars: Proportion of successful automatic detections of all visually detected blows (black), and proportion of visually detected blows of all automatic detections (grey) versus distance (bin width of 1 km). Errorbars give the standard error. Bar plot: Number of automatic (black) and visual (grey) detections versus distance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Conservation science", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Marine technology", "geography", "geoinformatics", "Remote sensing imagery", "marine and aquatic sciences", "signal processing", "Image processing"], "article_id"=>770242, "categories"=>["Engineering", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Daniel P. Zitterbart", "Lars Kindermann", "Elke Burkhardt", "Olaf Boebel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071217.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detection_performance_and_efficiency_/770242", "title"=>"Detection performance and efficiency.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 03:37:09"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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