Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement
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{"title"=>"Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sebastian", "last_name"=>"Sattler", "scopus_author_id"=>"56063862300"}, {"first_name"=>"Cynthia", "last_name"=>"Forlini", "scopus_author_id"=>"33367648800"}, {"first_name"=>"Éric", "last_name"=>"Racine", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701458932"}, {"first_name"=>"Carsten", "last_name"=>"Sauer", "scopus_author_id"=>"47062211000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23940757", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0071452", "pui"=>"369492120", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84881086329", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881086329"}, "id"=>"d24adc5e-47d7-3a78-903e-82f67f3ed812", "abstract"=>"Enhancing cognitive performance with substances--especially prescription drugs--is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/impact-contextual-factors-substance-characteristics-perspectives-toward-cognitive-enhancement", "reader_count"=>39, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1142126"], "description"=>"<p>Measured on a 10-point Likert-scale with anchors: 0: “under no circumstances”; 9: “in every case” (n  =  1,742).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Drug policy", "Medical ethics", "Medical sociology", "Public health", "Sociology", "Social research", "enhancing"], "article_id"=>763853, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Cynthia Forlini", "Éric Racine", "Carsten Sauer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Willingness_to_Use_a_Substance_for_Enhancing_Cognitive_Performance_/763853", "title"=>"Mean Willingness to Use a Substance for Enhancing Cognitive Performance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:44:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1142127"], "description"=>"<p>In each panel: Mean willingness to use a substance on a 10-point Likert-scale with anchors: 0: “under no circumstances”; 9: “in every case” and corresponding error bars. Panels A to C focus on the substance characteristics: (A) different types substances including an over-the-counter drug (OTC), pharmacy drug (PD), prescription drug (PRD), and illegal drug (ID); (B) varying severity of side effects (mild, moderate, severe); and (C) differing probabilities that side effects will occur (1 in 10.000, 1 in 100, 1 in 10). Panels D to F focus on varying contextual factors: (D) differing performance level relative to peers (low, average, high); (E) prevalence of use among peers (0%, 50%, 100%); and (F) presence or absence of policy and sanction (no policy, policy without sanctions, policy with sanction). (n  =  1,742; refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452#pone-0071452-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for the full description of the vignette levels).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Drug policy", "Medical ethics", "Medical sociology", "Public health", "Sociology", "Social research", "varying", "differing", "contextual"], "article_id"=>763854, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Cynthia Forlini", "Éric Racine", "Carsten Sauer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Willingness_to_Use_a_Substance_with_Varying_Characteristics_and_Under_Differing_Contextual_Factors_/763854", "title"=>"Willingness to Use a Substance with Varying Characteristics and Under Differing Contextual Factors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:44:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1142128"], "description"=>"<p>Measured on a 10-point Likert-scale with anchors: 0: “totally unacceptable”; 9: “completely acceptable” (n  =  1,743).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Drug policy", "Medical ethics", "Medical sociology", "Public health", "Sociology", "Social research", "acceptability", "enhancing"], "article_id"=>763855, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Cynthia Forlini", "Éric Racine", "Carsten Sauer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Moral_Acceptability_about_Using_a_Substance_for_Enhancing_Cognitive_Performance_/763855", "title"=>"Mean Moral Acceptability about Using a Substance for Enhancing Cognitive Performance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:44:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1142130"], "description"=>"<p>In each panel: Mean moral acceptability about the use of a substance on a 10-point Likert-scale with anchors: 0: “totally unacceptable”; 9: “completely acceptable” and corresponding error bars. Panels A to C focus on the substance characteristics: (A) different types substances including an over-the-counter drug (OTC), pharmacy drug (PD), prescription drug (PRD), and illegal drug (ID); (B) varying severity of side effects (mild, moderate, severe); and (C) differing probabilities that side effects will occur (1 in 10.000, 1 in 100, 1 in 10). Panels D to F focus on varying contextual factors: (D) differing performance level relative to peers (low, average, high); (E) prevalence of use among peers (0%, 50%, 100%); and (F) presence or absence of policy and sanction (no policy, policy without sanctions, policy with sanction). (n  =  1,743; refer to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452#pone-0071452-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for the full description of the vignette levels).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Drug policy", "Medical ethics", "Medical sociology", "Public health", "Sociology", "Social research", "acceptability", "varying", "differing", "contextual"], "article_id"=>763857, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Cynthia Forlini", "Éric Racine", "Carsten Sauer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Moral_Acceptability_of_Using_a_Substance_with_Varying_Characteristics_and_Differing_Contextual_Factors_/763857", "title"=>"Moral Acceptability of Using a Substance with Varying Characteristics and Differing Contextual Factors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:44:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1142132"], "description"=>"<p>*p<0.05,</p><p>**p<0.01,</p><p>***p<0.001 (robust standard errors).</p><p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452#pone-0071452-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> shows the incidence rate ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) in parentheses of the moral acceptability to use a CE substance on six vignette dimensions (Model 1) and additionally adjusted for gender and age in Model 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Drug policy", "Medical ethics", "Medical sociology", "Public health", "Sociology", "Social research", "binomial", "regression", "acceptability", "vignette", "dimensions"], "article_id"=>763858, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Cynthia Forlini", "Éric Racine", "Carsten Sauer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Negative_binomial_regression_of_moral_acceptability_on_vignette_dimensions_respondent_s_sex_and_age_/763858", "title"=>"Negative binomial regression of moral acceptability on vignette dimensions respondent's sex and age.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:44:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1142133"], "description"=>"<p>*p<0.05,</p><p>**p<0.01,</p><p>***p<0.001 (robust standard errors).</p><p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452#pone-0071452-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> shows the incidence rate ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) in parentheses of the willingness to use a CE substance on six vignette dimensions (Model 1) and additionally adjusted for gender and age in Model 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Drug policy", "Medical ethics", "Medical sociology", "Public health", "Sociology", "Social research", "binomial", "regression", "vignette", "dimensions"], "article_id"=>763859, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Cynthia Forlini", "Éric Racine", "Carsten Sauer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Negative_binomial_regression_of_willingness_on_vignette_dimensions_respondent_s_sex_and_age_/763859", "title"=>"Negative binomial regression of willingness on vignette dimensions respondent's sex and age.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:44:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1142134"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452#pone-0071452-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> shows the varied dimensions of our vignettes and their levels. The order of dimensions in our study was: 1, 4, 5, 6, 2, and 3. To ease the presentation of results in this article, we have changed the order and first present all substance properties (1, 2, 3), followed by all contextual factors (4, 5, 6).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bioethics", "Clinical research design", "Survey research", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Drug policy", "Medical ethics", "Medical sociology", "Public health", "Sociology", "Social research", "dimensions"], "article_id"=>763860, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Sebastian Sattler", "Cynthia Forlini", "Éric Racine", "Carsten Sauer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071452.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vignette_Dimensions_and_Levels_used_in_this_study_/763860", "title"=>"Vignette Dimensions and Levels used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-05 02:44:50"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[284, 458, 579, 688, 782, 879, 957, 1048, 1126, 1204, 1280, 1357, 1415]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Medical ethics", "average_usage"=>[211, 439, 535, 648, 730, 801, 871, 947, 1017, 1097, 1156, 1206, 1254, 1306]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Public and occupational health", "average_usage"=>[291, 491, 610, 723, 817, 906, 991, 1071, 1153, 1238, 1324, 1411, 1478]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}]}
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