Quantifying Beetle-Mediated Effects on Gas Fluxes from Dung Pats
Publication Date
August 07, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Atte Penttilä, Eleanor M. Slade, Asko Simojoki, Terhi Riutta, et al
Volume
8
Issue
8
Pages
e71454
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0071454
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23940758
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3737124
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23940758
Web of Science
000323109700101
Scopus
84881363710
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/quantifying-beetlemediated-effects-gas-fluxes-dung-pats
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145908", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145912"], "description"=>"<div><p>Agriculture is one of the largest contributors of the anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) responsible for global warming. Measurements of gas fluxes from dung pats suggest that dung is a source of GHGs, but whether these emissions are modified by arthropods has not been studied. A closed chamber system was used to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>), methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) and nitrous oxide (N<sub>2</sub>O) from dung pats with and without dung beetles on a grass sward. The presence of dung beetles significantly affected the fluxes of GHGs from dung pats. Most importantly, fresh dung pats emitted higher amounts of CO<sub>2</sub> and lower amounts of CH<sub>4</sub> per day in the presence than absence of beetles. Emissions of N<sub>2</sub>O showed a distinct peak three weeks after the start of the experiment – a pattern detected only in the presence of beetles. When summed over the main grazing season (June–July), total emissions of CH<sub>4</sub> proved significantly lower, and total emissions of N<sub>2</sub>O significantly higher in the presence than absence of beetles. While clearly conditional on the experimental conditions, the patterns observed here reveal a potential impact of dung beetles on gas fluxes realized at a small spatial scale, and thereby suggest that arthropods may have an overall effect on gas fluxes from agriculture. Dissecting the exact mechanisms behind these effects, mapping out the range of conditions under which they occur, and quantifying effect sizes under variable environmental conditions emerge as key priorities for further research.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agroecology", "Ecosystems agroecology", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Atmospheric science", "Climatology", "climate change", "beetle-mediated", "fluxes", "dung"], "article_id"=>766688, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Atte Penttilä", "Eleanor M. Slade", "Asko Simojoki", "Terhi Riutta", "Kari Minkkinen", "Tomas Roslin"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>26, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantifying_Beetle_Mediated_Effects_on_Gas_Fluxes_from_Dung_Pats_/766688", "title"=>"Quantifying Beetle-Mediated Effects on Gas Fluxes from Dung Pats", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:08:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145906"], "description"=>"a<p>Type 3 <i>F</i>-tests of fixed effects are given.</p>b<p>Mesocosms with 1) dung pats and dung beetles, 2) dung pats and no dung beetles, or 3) neither dung pats nor dung beetles.</p>c<p>Measurement day 1, 6, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 50.</p>d<p>Measurement day 6, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 50.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agroecology", "Ecosystems agroecology", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Atmospheric science", "Climatology", "climate change", "linear", "mixed-effect", "fluxes"], "article_id"=>766686, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Atte Penttilä", "Eleanor M. Slade", "Asko Simojoki", "Terhi Riutta", "Kari Minkkinen", "Tomas Roslin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generalized_linear_mixed_effect_models_of_changes_in_fluxes_over_time_/766686", "title"=>"Generalized linear mixed-effect models of changes in fluxes over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:08:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145903"], "description"=>"<p>Light gray symbols refer to empirical observations, with treatments identified by the same symbol styles as used in Fig. 1. Symbols with 95% confidence limits show least squares means estimated by a GLMM model (for details, see text and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454#pone-0071454-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>). To reveal overlapping data points, empirical values were slightly offset in the horizontal dimension. As measurements of CH<sub>4</sub> (panel b) and N<sub>2</sub>O (panel c) were lost for the first measuring date of 2011, these values are replaced by estimates from a separate experiment conducted in 2012 (see Appendix A for details). For clarity, estimates of 2011 are connected by lines, whereas estimates from 2012 are shown as separate data points (referring to arithmetic means with confidence limits derived from a <i>t</i>-distribution). Note the different scales of the y-axes, and that treatments are identified by the same symbols as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454#pone-0071454-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agroecology", "Ecosystems agroecology", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Atmospheric science", "Climatology", "climate change", "carbon", "dioxide"], "article_id"=>766683, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Atte Penttilä", "Eleanor M. Slade", "Asko Simojoki", "Terhi Riutta", "Kari Minkkinen", "Tomas Roslin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fluxes_of_a_CO_2_b_CH_4_c_N_2_O_and_d_carbon_dioxide_equivalents_/766683", "title"=>"Fluxes of (a) CO<sub>2</sub> (b) CH<sub>4</sub> (c) N<sub>2</sub>O and (d) carbon dioxide equivalents.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:08:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145902"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Twenty-two mesocosms were placed in an agricultural field, separated by distances of 70 cm. (B) These mesocosms were randomly assigned to three different treatments: 1) dung with dung beetles (open squares; n = 10); 2) dung without dung beetles (filled circles; n = 10), and 3) chambers containing neither dung nor beetles (open triangles; n = 2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agroecology", "Ecosystems agroecology", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Atmospheric science", "Climatology", "climate change", "measuring"], "article_id"=>766682, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Atte Penttilä", "Eleanor M. Slade", "Asko Simojoki", "Terhi Riutta", "Kari Minkkinen", "Tomas Roslin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_design_used_in_measuring_gas_fluxes_/766682", "title"=>"Experimental design used in measuring gas fluxes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:08:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145905"], "description"=>"a<p>Cumulative fluxes were calculated separately for each chamber as areas under the temporal gas flux curve (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454#pone-0071454-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a>; see also Appendix A). For CH<sub>4</sub>, N<sub>2</sub>O and CO<sub>2</sub> equivalents, measurements from day 1 and 3 were based on a separate experiment conducted in 2012 (see Appendix A), whereas all CO<sub>2</sub> measurements were based on data collected in 2011.</p>b<p>Compound-specific multipliers suggested by the IPCC (2007) were used to weigh together the contribution of individual compounds into the general currency of “CO<sub>2</sub> equivalents”, at a 100-year time horizon. Thus, fluxes of CH<sub>4</sub> were converted to CO<sub>2</sub> equivalents through multiplication by a factor of 25, and fluxes of N<sub>2</sub>O through multiplication by a factor of 298. As the net warming impact of carbon first tied by plants, then released from the dung as CO<sub>2</sub> will differ from that of CH<sub>4</sub> or N<sub>2</sub>O fluxes from dung (see Discussion), we derive separate subtotals for the cumulative emission of CO<sub>2</sub> equivalents of CH<sub>4</sub>, N<sub>2</sub>O, and their sum, as well as summing their total (equaling the warming impact of CO<sub>2</sub>, CH<sub>4</sub>, and N<sub>2</sub>O combined).</p>c<p>Row <i>F</i><sub>B</sub><i>versus F</i><sub>N</sub> shows the results of a compound-specific <i>t</i>-test of treatments <i>F</i><sub>B</sub> (presence of dung beetles) <i>versus F</i><sub>N</sub> (absence of dung beetles). The last row of the table shows the ratio between fluxes in the presence (<i>F</i><sub>B</sub>) <i>versus</i> absence (<i>F</i><sub>N</sub>) of dung beetles as the percentage ((<i>F</i><sub>B</sub>-<i>F</i><sub>N</sub>)/<i>F</i><sub>N</sub>).Variation in degrees of freedom reflects differences between tests based on equal versus unequal variances. (Where not otherwise specified, the test was based on the assumption of equal variances, as supported by a non-significant Levene’s test.).</p>d<p>Test based on unequal variances (cf. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454#pone-0071454-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2c</a>); test of equality of variances, <i>F</i><sub>9,9</sub> = 3.81 P = 0.03.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agroecology", "Ecosystems agroecology", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Atmospheric science", "Climatology", "climate change", "cumulative", "fluxes", "equivalents", "greenhouse", "gases"], "article_id"=>766685, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Atte Penttilä", "Eleanor M. Slade", "Asko Simojoki", "Terhi Riutta", "Kari Minkkinen", "Tomas Roslin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_cumulative_fluxes_and_CO_2_equivalents_g_m_8722_2_177_SD_of_greenhouse_gases_in_the_different_experimental_treatments_/766685", "title"=>"Average cumulative fluxes and CO<sub>2</sub> equivalents (g m<sup>−2</sup>, ±SD) of greenhouse gases in the different experimental treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:08:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1145904"], "description"=>"<p>Information on species-specific dry masses taken from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454#pone.0071454-Roslin1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>.</p>*<p>Species-specific number of individuals added to each replicate chamber in treatment 1.</p>†<p>Species-specific total counts used in the experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Agroecology", "Ecosystems agroecology", "ecology", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Global change ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Atmospheric science", "Climatology", "climate change", "beetle", "abundances"], "article_id"=>766684, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Atte Penttilä", "Eleanor M. Slade", "Asko Simojoki", "Terhi Riutta", "Kari Minkkinen", "Tomas Roslin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071454.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dung_beetle_abundances_used_in_the_experiment_/766684", "title"=>"Dung beetle abundances used in the experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-07 02:08:55"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[254, 421, 527, 626, 720, 813, 900, 983, 1063, 1136, 1210, 1283, 1342]}]}
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