Coping with Heat: Function of The Natal Coat of Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) Pups in Maintaining Core Body Temperature
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{"title"=>"Coping with Heat: Function of The Natal Coat of Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) Pups in Maintaining Core Body Temperature", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nicola", "last_name"=>"Erdsack", "scopus_author_id"=>"55308228300"}, {"first_name"=>"Guido", "last_name"=>"Dehnhardt", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603805216"}, {"first_name"=>"Wolf", "last_name"=>"Hanke", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101701402"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881365615", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0072081", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369535542", "sgr"=>"84881365615", "pmid"=>"23951287"}, "id"=>"b8d98ec8-98a7-3017-a030-282233cd9fc5", "abstract"=>"Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/coping-heat-function-natal-coat-cape-fur-seal-arctocephalus-pusillus-pusillus-pups-maintaining-core", "reader_count"=>16, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"South Africa"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147455"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Pup with dry fur. The hairs are curled, but constitute a continuous surface. (B) Pup with wet fur, 5 min after leaving the water. The guard hair is divided into strands, opening gaps through which the light grey under fur is visible.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "pups", "hauling"], "article_id"=>767849, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicola Erdsack", "Guido Dehnhardt", "Wolf Hanke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072081.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fur_seal_pups_hauling_out_with_dry_and_wet_fur_/767849", "title"=>"Fur seal pups hauling out with dry and wet fur.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 03:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147452"], "description"=>"<p>T<sub>body</sub> (green diamonds, green regression line; N = 23), T<sub>skin</sub> (red circles, red regression line; N = 279) and T<sub>fur</sub> (blue crosses, blue regression line; N = 300) against fur T<sub>surface</sub> (black line) of the pups with dry fur. At T<sub>surface</sub> >40°C, T<sub>skin</sub> and T<sub>fur</sub> were lower than T<sub>surface</sub>. At T<sub>surface</sub> <35°C, T<sub>skin</sub> and T<sub>fur</sub> were higher than T<sub>surface</sub>. T<sub>body</sub> was constant at around 37°C (36.9±0.3°C) with a slightly negative slope of regression of −0.006. T<sub>skin</sub> and T<sub>fur</sub> have slopes of regression of 0.1 (T<sub>skin</sub>) and 0.4 (T<sub>fur</sub>) and are strongly correlated to T<sub>surface</sub> (<i>p</i>≤0.0001; T<sub>skin</sub>: r<sub>s</sub> = 0.91; T<sub>fur</sub>: r<sub>s</sub> = 0.93), while T<sub>body</sub> is weakly, but not significantly negatively correlated to T<sub>surface</sub> (r<sub>s</sub> = −0.22; <i>p</i> = 0.32).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "pups"], "article_id"=>767846, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicola Erdsack", "Guido Dehnhardt", "Wolf Hanke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072081.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_T_body_T_skin_and_T_fur_of_the_pups_with_dry_fur_/767846", "title"=>"T<sub>body</sub>, T<sub>skin and</sub> T<sub>fur</sub> of the pups with dry fur.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 03:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147447"], "description"=>"<p>The pups, aged 18 and 28 days, hauled out in the sun for 1.5 h, T<sub>air</sub>  = 31.3°C. T<sub>surface</sub> increased up to 78.7°C on their backs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "pups", "hauling"], "article_id"=>767843, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicola Erdsack", "Guido Dehnhardt", "Wolf Hanke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072081.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cape_fur_seal_pups_hauling_out_under_intense_solar_radiation_/767843", "title"=>"Cape fur seal pups hauling out under intense solar radiation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 03:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147461"], "description"=>"<p>Pups hauling out under solar radiation with sudden appearance of a light breeze of wind force 1–2 (Beaufort), corresponding to 0.2–3.3 m/s. (A) Pup with T<sub>max</sub> = 61.2°C on the surface, T<sub>air</sub> = 17.3°C. (B) Decreased T<sub>surface</sub> after light breeze for 5 s to T<sub>max</sub> = 58.8°C (3.9%). (C) Pup with T<sub>max</sub> = 72.3°C on the surface, T<sub>air</sub> = 23.8°C. (D) After 42 s of light breeze T<sub>surface</sub> decreased to T<sub>max</sub> = 47.3°C (34.6%).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "hauled", "pups", "forced"], "article_id"=>767855, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicola Erdsack", "Guido Dehnhardt", "Wolf Hanke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072081.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reduction_of_T_surface_on_hauled_out_pups_by_wind_forced_convection_/767855", "title"=>"Reduction of T<sub>surface</sub> on hauled out pups by wind forced convection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 03:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147462"], "description"=>"<p>Minimum (T<sub>min</sub>), maximum (T<sub>max</sub>) and mean (T<sub>mean</sub>) temperatures of the pups' fur surface, air inside the fur, skin and body core along with temperature range, standard deviation (s.d.) and number of measurements (N). Total includes the data of all investigated pups with dry and wet fur. Beneath the data of all pups are sorted by wet or dry fur conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "pups"], "article_id"=>767856, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicola Erdsack", "Guido Dehnhardt", "Wolf Hanke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072081.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_T_body_T_skin_T_fur_and_T_surface_of_the_pups_with_wet_and_dry_fur_/767856", "title"=>"T<sub>body</sub>, T<sub>skin</sub>, T<sub>fur</sub> and T<sub>surface</sub> of the pups with wet and dry fur.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 03:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147457"], "description"=>"<p>T<sub>body</sub> with dry fur (green diamonds, green regression line, N = 23) and wet fur (turquoise filled circles, N = 3) as well as T<sub>skin</sub> with dry fur (red circles, red regression line, N = 279) and wet fur (blue circles, blue regression line, N = 28) against T<sub>air</sub>. Mean T<sub>skin</sub> with dry fur is 38.4±1.7°C, mean T<sub>skin</sub> with wet fur is 35.8±1.3°C, which is significantly lower than with dry fur (<i>p</i>≤0.0001). T<sub>body</sub> is constant with no significant difference between wet and dry fur. The slope of regression of T<sub>body</sub> is with 0.002 again practically constant, while the regressions of T<sub>skin</sub> ascend by 0.32 (dry fur) and 0.13 (wet fur).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "pups"], "article_id"=>767851, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicola Erdsack", "Guido Dehnhardt", "Wolf Hanke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072081.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_T_body_and_T_skin_of_the_pups_with_wet_and_dry_fur_/767851", "title"=>"T<sub>body</sub> and T<sub>skin</sub> of the pups with wet and dry fur.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 03:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147451"], "description"=>"<p>The shaded areas indicate the time span with strong rain during the thunderstorm (dark grey) and light rain after the thunderstorm was over (light grey). <b>5:11 p.m.</b>: T<sub>air</sub> = 26.4°C, T<sub>body</sub> = 37.6°C. Pup had been sleeping in the sun for 1.5 hours. <b>5:20 p.m.</b>: A thunderstorm with strong rain started and lasted for 28 minutes. The pup stayed asleep. <b>5:48 p.m.</b>: The thunderstorm stopped but it still rained on. <b>5:50 p.m.</b>: T<sub>air</sub> = 19.7°C. T<sub>body</sub> had decreased by 0.7°C to 36.9°C. <b>6:09 p.m.</b>: It was still raining, the pup was still sleeping. T<sub>body</sub> had further decreased by 0.3°C to 36.6°C. <b>6:25 p.m.</b>: T<sub>air</sub> = 20.4°C. The rain had stopped. <b>6:30 p.m.</b>: T<sub>body</sub> had increased by 0.2°C to 36.8°C. <b>7:30 p.m.</b>: T<sub>body</sub> had further increased by 0.5°C to 37.3°C.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "statistics", "Biostatistics", "pup"], "article_id"=>767845, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicola Erdsack", "Guido Dehnhardt", "Wolf Hanke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072081.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Course_of_T_body_of_a_female_pup_before_during_and_after_a_thunderstorm_/767845", "title"=>"Course of T<sub>body</sub> of a female pup before, during and after a thunderstorm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 03:08:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1147449"], "description"=>"<p>T<sub>body</sub> of the pups as function of duration of exposure to intense solar radiation (A) and as function of T<sub>surface</sub> (B). Neither hauling out under intense solar radiation for up to 3 h nor high T<sub>surface</sub> up to 77.2°C caused an increase of T<sub>body</sub>. Linear regressions have very slightly negative slopes of −0.002 (A) and −0.006 (B) indicating practically constant values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "ecology", "Ecological environments", "Marine environments", "Terrestrial environments", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "Marine biology", "Zoology", "marine and aquatic sciences", "statistics", "Biostatistics"], "article_id"=>767844, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicola Erdsack", "Guido Dehnhardt", "Wolf Hanke"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072081.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Course_of_the_pups_core_body_temperature_under_intense_solar_radiation_/767844", "title"=>"Course of the pups' core body temperature under intense solar radiation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-08 03:08:01"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Agriculture", "average_usage"=>[241, 422, 551, 659, 765, 866, 954, 1043, 1142, 1235, 1311, 1397, 1462]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Marine biology", "average_usage"=>[379, 624, 751, 898, 1019, 1162, 1280, 1377, 1482, 1611, 1750, 1853, 1936, 1987]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Marine and aquatic sciences", "average_usage"=>[299, 492, 619, 718, 826, 932, 1037, 1143, 1246, 1333, 1414, 1517, 1575]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Equipment", "average_usage"=>[246, 440, 558, 647, 746, 842, 937, 1028, 1116, 1191, 1253, 1348, 1420]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[254, 421, 527, 626, 720, 813, 900, 983, 1063, 1136, 1210, 1283, 1342]}]}
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