A High Throughput In Vivo Assay for Taste Quality and Palatability
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{"title"=>"A High Throughput In Vivo Assay for Taste Quality and Palatability", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"R. Kyle", "last_name"=>"Palmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402726909"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Long", "scopus_author_id"=>"55422604900"}, {"first_name"=>"Francis", "last_name"=>"Brennan", "scopus_author_id"=>"35744468100"}, {"first_name"=>"Tulu", "last_name"=>"Buber", "scopus_author_id"=>"55821479400"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Bryant", "scopus_author_id"=>"36797591400"}, {"first_name"=>"F. Raymond", "last_name"=>"Salemme", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197022567"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84881483761", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84881483761", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23951319", "pui"=>"369566302", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0072391"}, "id"=>"1933c658-db84-35d5-b553-080994398b82", "abstract"=>"Taste quality and palatability are two of the most important properties measured in the evaluation of taste stimuli. Human panels can report both aspects, but are of limited experimental flexibility and throughput capacity. Relatively efficient animal models for taste evaluation have been developed, but each of them is designed to measure either taste quality or palatability as independent experimental endpoints. We present here a new apparatus and method for high throughput quantification of both taste quality and palatability using rats in an operant taste discrimination paradigm. Cohorts of four rats were trained in a modified operant chamber to sample taste stimuli by licking solutions from a 96-well plate that moved in a randomized pattern beneath the chamber floor. As a rat's tongue entered the well it disrupted a laser beam projecting across the top of the 96-well plate, consequently producing two retractable levers that operated a pellet dispenser. The taste of sucrose was associated with food reinforcement by presses on a sucrose-designated lever, whereas the taste of water and other basic tastes were associated with the alternative lever. Each disruption of the laser was counted as a lick. Using this procedure, rats were trained to discriminate 100 mM sucrose from water, quinine, citric acid, and NaCl with 90-100% accuracy. Palatability was determined by the number of licks per trial and, due to intermediate rates of licking for water, was quantifiable along the entire spectrum of appetitiveness to aversiveness. All 96 samples were evaluated within 90 minute test sessions with no evidence of desensitization or fatigue. The technology is capable of generating multiple concentration-response functions within a single session, is suitable for in vivo primary screening of tastant libraries, and potentially can be used to evaluate stimuli for any taste system.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/high-throughput-vivo-assay-taste-quality-palatability", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315306"], "description"=>"<p>Each concentration of sucrose plus ZnSO<sub>4</sub> was dispensed in 3 wells, and of sucrose alone in 2 wells, per plate; controls were dispensed in 4-6 wells each per plate (See Figure S7 for plate configuration corresponding to the experiment illustrated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391#pone-0072391-g009\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 9</a>). Upper panel shows sweet taste quality plotted as percent of responses made on the sucrose lever. Lower panel shows concentration–response function for palatability plotted as mean licks per trial. Data are plotted as mean of responses averaged across 4 rats. Error bars are SEM. SUC = sucrose, CIT = citrate, QUI = quinine. Data are representative of 3 equivalent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sucrose"], "article_id"=>877982, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_ZnSO_4_on_Sucrose_Concentration_8211_response_Function_/877982", "title"=>"Effect of ZnSO<sub>4</sub> on Sucrose Concentration–response Function.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315303"], "description"=>"<p>Eight sweeteners (SUC = sucrose, REB A = rebaudioside A, ACE K = acesulfame potassium, SCR = sucralose, SAC = saccharine, STEV = stevioside, GLY = L-glycine, and SC45647) were tested for both taste quality and palatability across a range of concentration. Positive control: 100 mM SUC = sucrose; Negative controls: 10 mM CIT = citrate, 1 mM QUI = quinine, water and 100 mM NaCl. Upper panels shows graphs of sweet taste quality plotted as percent of responses made on the sucrose lever. Lower panel shows concentration–response functions for palatability, plotted as mean licks/trial, obtained in the same experiment. Each concentration of test article was dispensed into a single well of a 96-well plate. Data are plotted as mean of responses to contents from a single well per concentration of test article and 6-7 wells for controls per rat, averaged across 4 rats. Error bars are SEM. Data are representative of 3 equivalent experiments. See Figure S5 for plate configuration corresponding to the experiment illustrated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391#pone-0072391-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["functions", "sweeteners"], "article_id"=>877979, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentration_8211_response_Functions_for_8_Different_Sweeteners_in_a_Single_Test_Session_/877979", "title"=>"Concentration–response Functions for 8 Different Sweeteners in a Single Test Session.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315302"], "description"=>"<p>Data points are licks per trial plotted according to their corresponding trial number. All data in the plots were generated by 4 rats across four training sessions in which water, 100 mM sucrose, and 100 mM NaCl each were presented in 32 trials per session (thus, 4 rats x 32 trials x 4 sessions = 512 data points for each tastant.) The lines within the plots represent the results of the linear regression.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lick", "rates"], "article_id"=>877978, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_Between_Lick_Rates_and_Trial_Number_for_Water_Sucrose_and_NaCl_/877978", "title"=>"Relationship Between Lick Rates and Trial Number for Water, Sucrose, and NaCl.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315305"], "description"=>"<p>Each concentration of sucrose plus alloxan was dispensed in 3 wells, and of sucrose alone in 2 wells, per plate; controls were dispensed in 4-6 wells each per plate (See Figure S7 for plate configurations corresponding to the experiment illustrated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391#pone-0072391-g008\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 8</a>). Upper panel shows sweet taste quality plotted as percent of responses made on the sucrose lever. Lower panel shows concentration–response function for palatability plotted as mean licks per trial. Data are plotted as mean of responses averaged across 4 rats. Error bars are SEM. SUC = sucrose, ALOX = alloxan, CIT = citrate, QUI = quinine. Data are representative of 3 equivalent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alloxan", "sucrose"], "article_id"=>877981, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_Alloxan_on_Sucrose_Concentration_8211_response_Function_/877981", "title"=>"Effect of Alloxan on Sucrose Concentration–response Function.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315304"], "description"=>"<p>A panel of 15 sweeteners and polycose was tested by a cohort of 4 rats for detection of sweet taste quality (plotted as percent sucrose-appropriate lever presses, upper panel) and palatability (licks/trial, lower panel). Data for each sweetener (both taste quality and palatability) appear directly above and directly below their corresponding labels. Luo Han = Luo han guo, GLZ = glycyrrhizic acid, Reb A = rebaudioside A). Dashed blue and red lines respectively mark the mean responses to water (negative control) and to 100 mM sucrose (positive control). A single low (light gray bars) and single high concentration (dark gray bars) of each test sweetener was dispensed in two wells, and controls in 6-7 wells each, per plate. Concentration pairs were 0.01 and 0.1 mM (SC45647, stevioside, rebaudioside A), 0.1 and 1 mM (saccharin, Ace-K, sucralose), 1 and 10 mM (aspartame, cyclamate, glycyrrhizic acid) and 10 and 100 mM (L-glycine, glucose, maltose, fructose, trehalose). Luo han guo was tested at 1 and 10 mg/ml and polycose at 1% and 10% solutions. Results were averaged across 4 rats and the data shown in the figure are representative of two equivalent experiments. See Figure S6 for plate configuration corresponding to the experiment illustrated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391#pone-0072391-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vivo"], "article_id"=>877980, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Test_of_the_Potential_for_an_In_Vivo_Primary_Screen_for_Sweet_Taste_Properties_/877980", "title"=>"Test of the Potential for an In Vivo Primary Screen for Sweet Taste Properties.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315301"], "description"=>"<p>Licks recorded during individual trials of water and 100 mM sucrose over 3 sessions (12 each of water and sucrose per session, total of 36 water and sucrose trials) are plotted as a function of volume consumed on each trial. Shown are the data obtained from 2 rats tested on 3 consecutive days.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["relating", "licks"], "article_id"=>877977, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Function_Relating_Licks_to_Consumption_/877977", "title"=>"Function Relating Licks to Consumption.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315299"], "description"=>"<p>Two retractable levers in the front panel operate a food pellet dispenser. The front half of the floor swings upward to expose a sub-chamber beneath. A standard 96-well plate is placed on an x-y motion table in the sub-chamber. When the floor is closed, the contents of a single well can be accessed by licking through an aperture in the floor. Insertion of a rat’s tongue disrupts the path of a laser beam projected across the top of the well, activating a switch that produces the levers. Above each lever is a stimulus light. The chamber also contains a house-light in the ceiling and a tone generator on the rear wall (not pictured).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>877975, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_of_the_Apparatus_/877975", "title"=>"Schematic of the Apparatus.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315300"], "description"=>"<p>Upper graphs in each panel show sweet taste quality plotted as percent of responses made on the sucrose lever. Lower panels show concentration–response functions for palatability plotted as mean licks per trial. Data are plotted as mean of responses to contents from 4 wells for sucrose concentration range and 12-14 wells for controls per rat, averaged across 4 rats. Error bars are SEM. Open symbols represent values obtained for control tastants: ○ = 100 mM sucrose; ▽ = water; □ = 100 mM NaCl; △ = 10 mM citric acid; ◇ = 1 mM quinine. Closed symbols = test article: ● = sucrose. Results in each panel are of single experiments performed in sequential weekly intervals. See Figure S4 for plate configuration corresponding to the experiment illustrated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391#pone-0072391-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["functions", "completion"], "article_id"=>877976, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentration_8211_response_Functions_are_Stable_Across_Tests_Following_Completion_of_Discrimination_Training_/877976", "title"=>"Concentration–response Functions are Stable Across Tests Following Completion of Discrimination Training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315309", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315310", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315311", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315312", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315313", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315314", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315315", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315316", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315317", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315318", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315319", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315320"], "description"=>"<div><p>Taste quality and palatability are two of the most important properties measured in the evaluation of taste stimuli. Human panels can report both aspects, but are of limited experimental flexibility and throughput capacity. Relatively efficient animal models for taste evaluation have been developed, but each of them is designed to measure either taste quality or palatability as independent experimental endpoints. We present here a new apparatus and method for high throughput quantification of both taste quality and palatability using rats in an operant taste discrimination paradigm. Cohorts of four rats were trained in a modified operant chamber to sample taste stimuli by licking solutions from a 96-well plate that moved in a randomized pattern beneath the chamber floor. As a rat’s tongue entered the well it disrupted a laser beam projecting across the top of the 96-well plate, consequently producing two retractable levers that operated a pellet dispenser. The taste of sucrose was associated with food reinforcement by presses on a sucrose-designated lever, whereas the taste of water and other basic tastes were associated with the alternative lever. Each disruption of the laser was counted as a lick. Using this procedure, rats were trained to discriminate 100 mM sucrose from water, quinine, citric acid, and NaCl with 90-100% accuracy. Palatability was determined by the number of licks per trial and, due to intermediate rates of licking for water, was quantifiable along the entire spectrum of appetitiveness to aversiveness. All 96 samples were evaluated within 90 minute test sessions with no evidence of desensitization or fatigue. The technology is capable of generating multiple concentration–response functions within a single session, is suitable for in vivo primary screening of tastant libraries, and potentially can be used to evaluate stimuli for any taste system.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["throughput", "vivo", "assay"], "article_id"=>877985, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_High_Throughput_In_Vivo_Assay_for_Taste_Quality_and_Palatability_/877985", "title"=>"A High Throughput In Vivo Assay for Taste Quality and Palatability", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1315307"], "description"=>"<p>Upper graphs in each panel show taste quality plotted as percent of responses made on the standard-appropriate lever. Lower panels show concentration–response functions for palatability plotted as mean licks per trial. Data are plotted as mean of responses to contents from 4 wells per concentration of test article and 10-14 wells for controls per rat, averaged across 4 rats. Error bars are SEM. <b>A</b>: Rats were trained to discriminate the taste of 100 mM NaCl (○) from water (▽), 100 mM sucrose (□), 10 mM citric acid (△), and 1 mM quinine (◇). Test article: ● = NaCl. <b>B</b>: Rats were trained to discriminate the taste of 100 mM MSG+100 µM amiloride (○) from water (▽), 100 mM sucrose (*), 100 mM NaCl (□), 10 mM citric acid (△) and 1 mM quinine (◇). Test article: ● = MSG + amiloride. See Figure S8 for plate configurations corresponding to the experiment illustrated in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391#pone-0072391-g010\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 10A</a>; Figure S9 corresponds to the experiment of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391#pone-0072391-g010\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 10B</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["functions", "umami"], "article_id"=>877983, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences"], "users"=>["R. Kyle Palmer", "Daniel Long", "Francis Brennan", "Tulu Buber", "Robert Bryant", "F. Raymond Salemme"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072391.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentration_8211_response_Functions_for_Salt_and_Umami_Tastes_/877983", "title"=>"Concentration–response Functions for Salt and Umami Tastes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-12 12:48:04"}

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Relative Metric

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