Looking at the Ventriloquist: Visual Outcome of Eye Movements Calibrates Sound Localization
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{"title"=>"Looking at the Ventriloquist: Visual Outcome of Eye Movements Calibrates Sound Localization", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Daniel S.", "last_name"=>"Pages", "scopus_author_id"=>"55840398500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer M.", "last_name"=>"Groh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006084280"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369700162", "sgr"=>"84883238884", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24009691", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84883238884", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0072562", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"cfc80751-a2e4-3874-8e66-8ffb62900107", "abstract"=>"A general problem in learning is how the brain determines what lesson to learn (and what lessons not to learn). For example, sound localization is a behavior that is partially learned with the aid of vision. This process requires correctly matching a visual location to that of a sound. This is an intrinsically circular problem when sound location is itself uncertain and the visual scene is rife with possible visual matches. Here, we develop a simple paradigm using visual guidance of sound localization to gain insight into how the brain confronts this type of circularity. We tested two competing hypotheses. 1: The brain guides sound location learning based on the synchrony or simultaneity of auditory-visual stimuli, potentially involving a Hebbian associative mechanism. 2: The brain uses a 'guess and check' heuristic in which visual feedback that is obtained after an eye movement to a sound alters future performance, perhaps by recruiting the brain's reward-related circuitry. We assessed the effects of exposure to visual stimuli spatially mismatched from sounds on performance of an interleaved auditory-only saccade task. We found that when humans and monkeys were provided the visual stimulus asynchronously with the sound but as feedback to an auditory-guided saccade, they shifted their subsequent auditory-only performance toward the direction of the visual cue by 1.3-1.7 degrees, or 22-28% of the original 6 degree visual-auditory mismatch. In contrast when the visual stimulus was presented synchronously with the sound but extinguished too quickly to provide this feedback, there was little change in subsequent auditory-only performance. Our results suggest that the outcome of our own actions is vital to localizing sounds correctly. Contrary to previous expectations, visual calibration of auditory space does not appear to require visual-auditory associations based on synchrony/simultaneity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/looking-ventriloquist-visual-outcome-eye-movements-calibrates-sound-localization", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>10, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>17, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>10}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>17}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1185704"], "description"=>"<p>(A) All trials began with fixation of a visual fixation target located 12 degrees below a row of speakers and LEDs spanning −24 to 24 degrees along the horizontal meridian. Spatially mismatched visual-auditory trials involved the presentation of a sound at one speaker combined with the illumination of an LED attached to the adjacent speaker. (B) Each experimental session involved an initial baseline assessment of performance on auditory and visual trials followed by an adaptation phase in which training trials with mismatched audiovisual stimuli were interleaved in proportions as illustrated. Performance on auditory probe trials after introduction of these mismatched audiovisual training trials was compared to baseline performance. (C) Three types of audiovisual training and auditory probe trials were assessed in different sessions. On <i>synchrony-only</i> audiovisual training trials, the visual and auditory stimuli were coincident in time but both were turned off during the subject’s saccade to the target, preventing visual feedback. On <i>feedback-only</i> audiovisual training trials, the sound came on first, but it was turned off and a visual stimulus was turned on during the saccade to the sound, eliminating synchrony between the visual and auditory stimulus. On <i>feedback-and-synchrony</i> audiovisual trials, the auditory and the visual stimulus were turned on together, and were left on following completion of the saccade, thus allowing a synchronous visual stimulus to also provide visual feedback. Interleaved auditory-only probe trials differed from the corresponding audiovisual training trials in lacking a visual stimulus but were otherwise identical.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Neural pathways", "neuroscience", "Sensory systems", "Auditory system", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "neurology", "Cognitive neurology", "configuration"], "article_id"=>784744, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel S. Pages", "Jennifer M. Groh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072562.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_Configuration_of_Stimuli_Experimental_Session_Design_and_Trial_Types_/784744", "title"=>"Spatial Configuration of Stimuli, Experimental Session Design, and Trial Types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-29 07:33:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1185706"], "description"=>"<p>The mean change +/− SE in saccade endpoints on auditory probe trials during the adaptation phase compared to the baseline phase for humans (A) and monkeys (B). The data is normalized such that the direction of the displaced visual stimulus is always considered positive. Small red bars represent individual subject totals, with the human subjects ordered by their performance on the baseline trials (best auditory saccade precision on the left) N values correspond to speaker positions*sessions (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072562#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>). (C, D) The time course of the shift in behavioral performance as a function of auditory-probe trial number with respect to the beginning of the adaptation phase (mean +/− SE). For example, trials 120–160 represent the 120<sup>th</sup>–160<sup>th</sup> auditory probe trial after audiovisual trials began. Each auditory probe trial is considered a data point. The data in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072562#pone-0072562-g002\" target=\"_blank\">figure 2C–2D</a> is jittered on the X axis for readability.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Neural pathways", "neuroscience", "Sensory systems", "Auditory system", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "neurology", "Cognitive neurology", "induced", "shifts"], "article_id"=>784746, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel S. Pages", "Jennifer M. Groh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072562.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Robust_induced_shifts_in_Feedback_condition_/784746", "title"=>"Robust induced shifts in Feedback condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-29 07:33:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1185707"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Shift on visual trials. The magnitude of the induced visual shift on visual-only trials during feedback sessions was calculated in the same fashion as for auditory-only trials; that is, by subtracting the mean baseline visual saccade amplitude for a given target location from that of the adaptation phase, yielding one value per session and target. The bars represent the means of these values +/− the standard error (same conventions as <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072562#pone-0072562-g002\" target=\"_blank\">figure 2</a>). (B–C). Shift on auditory trials by speaker position. Magnitude of shift is plotted as a function of speaker location for humans (3B) and monkeys (3C). The Y axis is normalized such that the direction of the visual stimulus’ displacement is always plotted as positive. The X axis normalized such that a shift in the direction of the visual stimulus involves hypermetric (longer) saccades for positive X values and hypometric (shorter) saccades for negative X values. The feedback condition elicited a larger shift in the direction of the visual stimulus than the simultaneous condition did, regardless of whether the saccades involved were made longer or shorter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Neurological system", "Neural pathways", "neuroscience", "Sensory systems", "Auditory system", "Visual system", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "Mental health", "psychology", "Cognitive psychology", "learning", "neurology", "Cognitive neurology", "auditory"], "article_id"=>784747, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Daniel S. Pages", "Jennifer M. Groh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072562.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_control_and_auditory_shift_by_speaker_position_/784747", "title"=>"Visual control and auditory shift by speaker position.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-08-29 07:33:13"}

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