Evaluating the Significance of Paleophylogeographic Species Distribution Models in Reconstructing Quaternary Range-Shifts of Nearctic Chelonians
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{"title"=>"Evaluating the Significance of Paleophylogeographic Species Distribution Models in Reconstructing Quaternary Range-Shifts of Nearctic Chelonians", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dennis", "last_name"=>"Rödder", "scopus_author_id"=>"24468909800"}, {"first_name"=>"A. Michelle", "last_name"=>"Lawing", "scopus_author_id"=>"23974497200"}, {"first_name"=>"Morris", "last_name"=>"Flecks", "scopus_author_id"=>"41261374800"}, {"first_name"=>"Faraham", "last_name"=>"Ahmadzadeh", "scopus_author_id"=>"24780728200"}, {"first_name"=>"Johannes", "last_name"=>"Dambach", "scopus_author_id"=>"35776225600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jan O.", "last_name"=>"Engler", "scopus_author_id"=>"25645538400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jan Christian", "last_name"=>"Habel", "scopus_author_id"=>"9234304700"}, {"first_name"=>"Timo", "last_name"=>"Hartmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"23492646100"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Hörnes", "scopus_author_id"=>"55757909200"}, {"first_name"=>"Flora", "last_name"=>"Ihlow", "scopus_author_id"=>"54901502400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathrin", "last_name"=>"Schidelko", "scopus_author_id"=>"36810452600"}, {"first_name"=>"Darius", "last_name"=>"Stiels", "scopus_author_id"=>"36810840200"}, {"first_name"=>"P. David", "last_name"=>"Polly", "scopus_author_id"=>"9841533000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885106526", "sgr"=>"84885106526", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0072855", "pmid"=>"24130664", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"369979913"}, "id"=>"6388c7ff-27c5-3fc8-bc89-783831719978", "abstract"=>"The climatic cycles of the Quaternary, during which global mean annual temperatures have regularly changed by 5-10°C, provide a special opportunity for studying the rate, magnitude, and effects of geographic responses to changing climates. During the Quaternary, high- and mid-latitude species were extirpated from regions that were covered by ice or otherwise became unsuitable, persisting in refugial retreats where the environment was compatible with their tolerances. In this study we combine modern geographic range data, phylogeny, Pleistocene paleoclimatic models, and isotopic records of changes in global mean annual temperature, to produce a temporally continuous model of geographic changes in potential habitat for 59 species of North American turtles over the past 320 Ka (three full glacial-interglacial cycles). These paleophylogeographic models indicate the areas where past climates were compatible with the modern ranges of the species and serve as hypotheses for how their geographic ranges would have changed in response to Quaternary climate cycles. We test these hypotheses against physiological, genetic, taxonomic and fossil evidence, and we then use them to measure the effects of Quaternary climate cycles on species distributions. Patterns of range expansion, contraction, and fragmentation in the models are strongly congruent with (i) phylogeographic differentiation; (ii) morphological variation; (iii) physiological tolerances; and (iv) intraspecific genetic variability. Modern species with significant interspecific differentiation have geographic ranges that strongly fluctuated and repeatedly fragmented throughout the Quaternary. Modern species with low genetic diversity have geographic distributions that were highly variable and at times exceedingly small in the past. Our results reveal the potential for paleophylogeographic models to (i) reconstruct past geographic range modifications, (ii) identify geographic processes that result in genetic bottlenecks; and (iii) predict threats due to anthropogenic climate change in the future.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/evaluating-significance-paleophylogeographic-species-distribution-models-reconstructing-quaternary-r", "reader_count"=>91, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>64, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>64}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Denmark"=>2, "Brazil"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Georgia"=>1, "France"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230803"], "description"=>"<p>A species' realized niche (R) is the intersection of its fundamental niche (F), its accessible climate or territory (A), and the climate and territory not barred by biotic interactions (B). Its potential niche (P) is the subset of the fundamental niche for which there is available climate (A), and its potential distribution is the territory with climate tolerable to the species. (F ∩ P) is the range of climate or geography that is climatically tolerable to a species but which is not accessible because of the lack of climate availability (E-space) or geographic barriers (G-space). A fossil may occur in E-space within the species' potential distribution (1), outside the range of available paleoclimate (2), or in paleoclimates which are available but actually not suitable (3). See text for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["realized", "niches", "geographic", "distributions", "venn", "diagram", "climatic", "niche"], "article_id"=>818625, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Dennis Rödder", "A. Michelle Lawing", "Morris Flecks", "Faraham Ahmadzadeh", "Johannes Dambach", "Jan O. Engler", "Jan Christian Habel", "Timo Hartmann", "David Hörnes", "Flora Ihlow", "Kathrin Schidelko", "Darius Stiels", "P. David Polly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_fundamental_niches_realized_niches_potential_niches_and_geographic_distributions_as_a_a_Venn_diagram_after_36_157_b_in_climatic_niche_space_E_space_and_c_in_geographic_space_G_space_/818625", "title"=>"Relationships between fundamental niches, realized niches, potential niches and geographic distributions as (a) a Venn diagram (after [36], [157]); (b) in climatic niche space (E-space); and (c) in geographic space (G-space).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:25:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230808"], "description"=>"<p>Dispersal capacities per species were restricted to the corresponding watersheds (D). For full videos see Appendix S4 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855#pone.0072855.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Material S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["richness", "envelopes", "fluctuations", "projected", "glacial", "21", "ky", "bp", "interglacial", "palaeophylogeographic", "59", "nearctic"], "article_id"=>818627, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Dennis Rödder", "A. Michelle Lawing", "Morris Flecks", "Faraham Ahmadzadeh", "Johannes Dambach", "Jan O. Engler", "Jan Christian Habel", "Timo Hartmann", "David Hörnes", "Flora Ihlow", "Kathrin Schidelko", "Darius Stiels", "P. David Polly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_current_species_richness_according_to_100_and_90_environmental_envelopes_A_as_well_as_historic_fluctuations_as_projected_for_the_last_glacial_maximum_21_ky_BP_B_and_the_last_interglacial_C_according_to_palaeophylogeographic_models_of_59_Nearcti/818627", "title"=>"Predicted current species richness according to 100% and 90% environmental envelopes (A) as well as historic fluctuations as projected for the last glacial maximum 21 ky BP (B) and the last interglacial (C) according to palaeophylogeographic models of 59 Nearctic chelonians.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:25:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230810"], "description"=>"<p>Warmer colors reflect higher point densities considering both climate and phylogenetic effects (top panel), only climate (middle panel) and only phylogeny (bottom).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pairwise", "temperatures", "sizes", "mat", "geographic", "centers", "distributions", "59", "nearctic", "chelonians", "320"], "article_id"=>818629, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Dennis Rödder", "A. Michelle Lawing", "Morris Flecks", "Faraham Ahmadzadeh", "Johannes Dambach", "Jan O. Engler", "Jan Christian Habel", "Timo Hartmann", "David Hörnes", "Flora Ihlow", "Kathrin Schidelko", "Darius Stiels", "P. David Polly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_pairwise_changes_in_mean_annual_temperatures_MAT_and_pairwise_changes_in_potential_distribution_range_sizes_as_well_as_between_MAT_and_pairwise_changes_in_geographic_centers_of_potential_distributions_in_59_Nearctic_chelonians_durin/818629", "title"=>"Relationships between pairwise changes in mean annual temperatures (MAT) and pairwise changes in potential distribution range sizes as well as between MAT and pairwise changes in geographic centers of potential distributions in 59 Nearctic chelonians during the last 320 ky.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:25:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230811"], "description"=>"<p>Positive MESS scores indicate conditions within the species' modern potential niche and negative MESS scores indicate bioclimatic conditions outside of the modern potential niche. Solid lines refer to the complete set of fossils (black) and SIM5 points (gray), wherein dotted lines refer to subsets nested across all variables within the species' potential niche. Percentages provided in each subplot refer to the proportion of records within the species' current realizable niche and the respective subsets (total/within potential niche/outside of potential niche) for fossils (F) and SIM5 (S). Dashed lines refer to subsets of exeeding those conditions currently available to the species in at least one predictor. Abbreviations are: BIO1 = annual mean temperature; BIO2 = mean diurnal range; BIO3 = isothermality; BIO4 = temperature seasonality; BIO5 = max temperature of warmest month; BIO6 = min temperature of coldest month; BIO7 = temperature annual range; BIO8 = mean temperature of wettest quarter; BIO9 = mean temperature of driest quarter; BIO10 = mean temperature of warmest quarter; BIO11 = mean temperature of coldest quarter; BIO12 = annual precipitation; BIO13 = precipitation of wettest month; BIO14 = precipitation of driest month; BIO15 = precipitation seasonality; BIO16 = precipitation of wettest quarter; BIO17 = precipitation of driest quarter; BIO18 = precipitation of warmest quarter; BIO19 = precipitation of coldest quarter; MESS: Multivariate Environmental Similarity Score.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["niche", "nearctic", "chelonians", "141", "fossils", "proximal", "50", "points", "cases", "analogous", "climates"], "article_id"=>818630, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Dennis Rödder", "A. Michelle Lawing", "Morris Flecks", "Faraham Ahmadzadeh", "Johannes Dambach", "Jan O. Engler", "Jan Christian Habel", "Timo Hartmann", "David Hörnes", "Flora Ihlow", "Kathrin Schidelko", "Darius Stiels", "P. David Polly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Historic_niche_dynamics_in_Nearctic_chelonians_based_on_141_fossils_and_the_five_most_proximal_SIM5_50_km_2_points_in_climate_space_in_those_cases_where_species_find_no_analogous_climates_to_their_past_potential_niche_/818630", "title"=>"Historic niche dynamics in Nearctic chelonians based on 141 fossils and the five most proximal (SIM5) 50 km<sup>2</sup> points in climate space in those cases where species find no analogous climates to their past potential niche.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:25:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230812"], "description"=>"<p>Given are details on intraspecific variability and differentiation, the marker system, the dating of splits (old = before the LGM, recent = after the LGM) as well as a comparison with the results obtained from paleophylogeographic modeling (1 = pattern mirrored in PPGM; x = pattern not mirrored).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["overview", "phylogeographic", "morphometric", "american", "turtle"], "article_id"=>818631, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Dennis Rödder", "A. Michelle Lawing", "Morris Flecks", "Faraham Ahmadzadeh", "Johannes Dambach", "Jan O. Engler", "Jan Christian Habel", "Timo Hartmann", "David Hörnes", "Flora Ihlow", "Kathrin Schidelko", "Darius Stiels", "P. David Polly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comprehensive_overview_of_phylogeographic_and_morphometric_analyses_of_North_American_turtle_species_/818631", "title"=>"Comprehensive overview of phylogeographic and morphometric analyses of North American turtle species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:25:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230814"], "description"=>"<p>For example, a MESS score of −1.6 on BIO6 indicates that the fossil fell 1.6% outside the niche's breadth on the BIO6 climate variable (c.f., <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855#pone-0072855-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>). Only incompatible climate variables are reported here (see Appendix S3 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855#pone.0072855.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Material S1</a> for a full summary).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["scores", "fossils", "fell", "niche"], "article_id"=>818633, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Dennis Rödder", "A. Michelle Lawing", "Morris Flecks", "Faraham Ahmadzadeh", "Johannes Dambach", "Jan O. Engler", "Jan Christian Habel", "Timo Hartmann", "David Hörnes", "Flora Ihlow", "Kathrin Schidelko", "Darius Stiels", "P. David Polly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multivariate_environmental_similarity_scores_MESS_for_fossils_that_fell_outside_the_potential_distribution_of_their_species_Negative_scores_indicate_the_distance_outside_the_potential_niche_as_a_percentage_of_the_niche_s_size_/818633", "title"=>"Multivariate environmental similarity scores (MESS) for fossils that fell outside the potential distribution of their species. Negative scores indicate the distance outside the potential niche as a percentage of the niche's size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:25:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230815"], "description"=>"<p>Summary statistics for fossil occurrences in Nearctic chelonians in terms of availability and niche position relative to the species' modern niches (for more details see Appendix S3 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855#pone.0072855.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Material S1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fossil", "occurrences", "nearctic", "chelonians", "niche", "niches", "details", "appendix", "s3"], "article_id"=>818634, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Dennis Rödder", "A. Michelle Lawing", "Morris Flecks", "Faraham Ahmadzadeh", "Johannes Dambach", "Jan O. Engler", "Jan Christian Habel", "Timo Hartmann", "David Hörnes", "Flora Ihlow", "Kathrin Schidelko", "Darius Stiels", "P. David Polly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_for_fossil_occurrences_in_Nearctic_chelonians_in_terms_of_availability_and_niche_position_relative_to_the_species_modern_niches_for_more_details_see_Appendix_S3_in_Material_S1_/818634", "title"=>"Summary statistics for fossil occurrences in Nearctic chelonians in terms of availability and niche position relative to the species' modern niches (for more details see Appendix S3 in Material S1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:25:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230909"], "description"=>"<div><p>The climatic cycles of the Quaternary, during which global mean annual temperatures have regularly changed by 5–10°C, provide a special opportunity for studying the rate, magnitude, and effects of geographic responses to changing climates. During the Quaternary, high- and mid-latitude species were extirpated from regions that were covered by ice or otherwise became unsuitable, persisting in refugial retreats where the environment was compatible with their tolerances. In this study we combine modern geographic range data, phylogeny, Pleistocene paleoclimatic models, and isotopic records of changes in global mean annual temperature, to produce a temporally continuous model of geographic changes in potential habitat for 59 species of North American turtles over the past 320 Ka (three full glacial-interglacial cycles). These paleophylogeographic models indicate the areas where past climates were compatible with the modern ranges of the species and serve as hypotheses for how their geographic ranges would have changed in response to Quaternary climate cycles. We test these hypotheses against physiological, genetic, taxonomic and fossil evidence, and we then use them to measure the effects of Quaternary climate cycles on species distributions. Patterns of range expansion, contraction, and fragmentation in the models are strongly congruent with (i) phylogeographic differentiation; (ii) morphological variation; (iii) physiological tolerances; and (iv) intraspecific genetic variability. Modern species with significant interspecific differentiation have geographic ranges that strongly fluctuated and repeatedly fragmented throughout the Quaternary. Modern species with low genetic diversity have geographic distributions that were highly variable and at times exceedingly small in the past. Our results reveal the potential for paleophylogeographic models to (i) reconstruct past geographic range modifications, (ii) identify geographic processes that result in genetic bottlenecks; and (iii) predict threats due to anthropogenic climate change in the future.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["paleophylogeographic", "reconstructing", "quaternary", "range-shifts", "nearctic"], "article_id"=>818712, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Dennis Rödder", "A. Michelle Lawing", "Morris Flecks", "Faraham Ahmadzadeh", "Johannes Dambach", "Jan O. Engler", "Jan Christian Habel", "Timo Hartmann", "David Hörnes", "Flora Ihlow", "Kathrin Schidelko", "Darius Stiels", "P. David Polly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072855"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evaluating_the_Significance_of_Paleophylogeographic_Species_Distribution_Models_in_Reconstructing_Quaternary_Range_Shifts_of_Nearctic_Chelonians_/818712", "title"=>"Evaluating the Significance of Paleophylogeographic Species Distribution Models in Reconstructing Quaternary Range-Shifts of Nearctic Chelonians", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:25:02"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[290, 478, 601, 716, 816, 914, 1016, 1112, 1203, 1285, 1373, 1451, 1516]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[302, 488, 607, 717, 832, 931, 1024, 1117, 1212, 1302, 1389, 1469, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Population biology", "average_usage"=>[269, 448, 558, 658, 744, 830, 914, 995, 1068, 1139, 1214, 1284, 1349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geography", "average_usage"=>[285, 472, 614, 714, 817, 928, 1028, 1122, 1225, 1327, 1410, 1482, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Biogeography", "average_usage"=>[320, 517, 642, 738, 850, 955, 1039, 1136, 1226, 1315, 1406, 1495, 1565]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}]}
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