Ablation of the Id2 Gene Results in Altered Circadian Feeding Behavior, and Sex-Specific Enhancement of Insulin Sensitivity and Elevated Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle and Brown Adipose Tissue
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{"title"=>"Ablation of the Id2 Gene Results in Altered Circadian Feeding Behavior, and Sex-Specific Enhancement of Insulin Sensitivity and Elevated Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle and Brown Adipose Tissue", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Deepa", "last_name"=>"Mathew"}, {"first_name"=>"Peng", "last_name"=>"Zhou"}, {"first_name"=>"Cameron M.", "last_name"=>"Pywell"}, {"first_name"=>"Daan R.", "last_name"=>"van der Veen"}, {"first_name"=>"Jinping", "last_name"=>"Shao"}, {"first_name"=>"Yang", "last_name"=>"Xi"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolle A.", "last_name"=>"Bonar"}, {"first_name"=>"Alyssa D.", "last_name"=>"Hummel"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah", "last_name"=>"Chapman"}, {"first_name"=>"W. Matthew", "last_name"=>"Leevy"}, {"first_name"=>"Giles E.", "last_name"=>"Duffield"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"563050805", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0073064", "sgr"=>"84897922138", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897922138", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24023810"}, "id"=>"ae72241a-8bc7-3006-adde-e31991489524", "abstract"=>"Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our earlier studies have demonstrated a role for ID2 in the input pathway, core clock function and output pathways of the mouse circadian system. We have also reported that Id2 null (Id2-/-) mice are lean with low gonadal white adipose tissue deposits and lower lipid content in the liver. These results coincided with altered or disrupted circadian expression profiles of liver genes including those involved in lipid metabolism. In the present phenotypic study we intended to decipher, on a sex-specific basis, the role of ID2 in glucose metabolism and in the circadian regulation of activity, important components of energy balance. We find that Id2-/- mice exhibited altered daily and circadian rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity; activity profiles extended further into the late night/dark phase of the 24-hr cycle, despite mice showing reduced total locomotor activity. Also, male Id2-/- mice consumed a greater amount of food relative to body mass, and displayed less weight gain. Id2-/- females had smaller adipocytes, suggesting sexual-dimorphic programing of adipogenesis. We observed increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in male Id2-/- mice, which was exacerbated in older animals. FDG-PET analysis revealed increased glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue of male Id2-/- mice, suggesting increased glucose metabolism and thermogenesis in these tissues. Reductions in intramuscular triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol were detected in male Id2-/- mice, highlighting its possible mechanistic role in enhanced insulin sensitivity in these mice. Our findings indicate a role for ID2 as a regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, and in the circadian control of feeding/locomotor behavior; and contribute to the understanding of the development of obesity and diabetes, particularly in shift work personnel among whom incidence of such metabolic disorders is elevated.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ablation-id2-gene-results-altered-circadian-feeding-behavior-sexspecific-enhancement-insulin-sensiti", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187850"], "description"=>"<p>A) Daily feeding activity counts of <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice (ANOVA: genotype, n.s.; sex, n.s.; interaction, n.s). B) Daily general activity counts in <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice determined by passive infrared motion detectors (genotype, P<0.05; sex, P = 0.057; interaction, n.s). C) Daily wheel revolution counts of WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (genotype, P<0.001; sex, P<0.05; interaction, P<0.01). Values represent mean ± SEM. ***p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity", "mice", "locomotor", "compared", "wt"], "article_id"=>786331, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Id2_8722_8722_mice_exhibit_less_locomotor_activity_compared_to_WT_mice_/786331", "title"=>"<i>Id2−/−</i> mice exhibit less locomotor activity compared to WT mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187856"], "description"=>"<p>A) Daily feeding activity profile of WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (ANOVA: time (T), P<0.001; genotype (G), n.s.; interaction (I), P<0.01). B) Circadian feeding activity profile of WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P<0.001; G, n.s.; I, P<0.05). C) Daily PIR motion detector general activity profile of WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P<0.001; G, P<0.05; I, P<0.001). D) Circadian general activity profile of WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P<0.001; G, P = 0.15; I, P<0.001). E) Daily wheel running activity profile of WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P<0.001; G, P<0.001; I, P<0.001). F) Circadian wheel running activity profile of WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P<0.001; G, P<0.01; I, P<0.001). The shaded area in the plots represents dark phase of the LD cycle or constant darkness. Values shown represent mean ± SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity", "mice", "altered", "circadian", "patterns", "feeding", "locomotor"], "article_id"=>786335, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Id2_8722_8722_mice_show_altered_daily_and_circadian_patterns_of_feeding_and_locomotor_activity_/786335", "title"=>"<i>Id2−/−</i> mice show altered daily and circadian patterns of feeding and locomotor activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187857"], "description"=>"<p>A) Body weight comparison between WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (ANOVA: genotype (G), P<0.05; sex (S), P<0.01; interaction (I), P<0.05). B) Weekly weight gain pattern of <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice in cages equipped with a running wheel (G, P<0.01; S, n.s.; I, n.s.). C) Daily food intake of <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice in wheel cages (ANOVA: G, P<0.01; S, n.s.; I, n.s). Values shown represent mean ± SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity"], "article_id"=>786336, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Resistance_to_weight_gain_in_Id2_8722_8722_mice_/786336", "title"=>"Resistance to weight gain in <i>Id2−/−</i> mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187859"], "description"=>"<p>A) Representative images of hematoxylin/eosin stained gonadal white adipose tissue sections of male and female WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (scale bar = 50 µm). B) Cell area of gonadal WAT in WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (ANOVA: genotype, P<0.05; sex, n.s.; interaction, P<0.001). No significant correlation was detected between cell size and age of animal (Spearman’s rank order correlation/linear regression, n.s.).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity", "gonadal", "adipose", "wt"], "article_id"=>786338, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_size_of_the_gonadal_white_adipose_tissue_is_different_between_female_Id2_8722_8722_and_WT_mice_/786338", "title"=>"Cell size of the gonadal white adipose tissue is different between female <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187860"], "description"=>"<p>A) Fasting blood glucose levels of young and old, WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (ANOVA: genotype, P<0.01; age, P<0.001; interaction, n.s.). B). Fasting insulin levels of young and old, WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (genotype, P<0.001; age, P<0.05; interaction, n.s.). Values shown represent mean ± SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity", "glucose"], "article_id"=>786339, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fasting_glucose_and_Insulin_levels_while_aging_/786339", "title"=>"Fasting glucose and Insulin levels while aging.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187862"], "description"=>"<p>A) Glucose tolerance test (GTT) of young male WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (RM-ANOVA: time (T), P<0.001; Genotype (G), P<0.05; interaction (I), n.s). B) GTT of old male WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P<0.001; G, P<0.05; I, P = 0.001). C) Insulin tolerance test (ITT) of young male WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P<0.001; G, P<0.05; I, n.s.). D) ITT of old male WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P<0.001; G, P<0.01; I, P<0.001). E) Glucose-stimulated insulin release in young male WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P<0.01; G, P<0.01; I, n.s.). F) Glucose-stimulated insulin release in old male WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (T, P = 0.103; G, P<0.01; I, n.s.). No effect of aging was observed in the glucose tolerance of either WT or <i>Id2</i>−/− males (RM-ANOVAs, n.s.). Comparison on young and old <i>Id2−/−</i> males reveal an increase in insulin sensitivity (T, P<0.001; A, P<0.001; I, P<0.01) in the older group. This large age effect was not observed in WTs (T, P<0.001; age (A), p = 0.06; I, P<0.05), although there was tendency for a slower recovery to baseline glucose levels at 90 and 120 mins (p<0.05). Values shown represent mean ± SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity", "mice", "enhanced", "glucose"], "article_id"=>786341, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Id2_8722_8722_male_mice_display_enhanced_glucose_tolerance_and_insulin_sensitivity_/786341", "title"=>"<i>Id2−/−</i> male mice display enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187865"], "description"=>"<p>A) GTT of young female <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice (RM-ANOVA: time (T), P<0.001; genotype (G), n.s.; interaction (I), n.s.). B) GTT of old female <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice (T, P<0.001; G, n.s.; I, n.s.). C) ITT of young female <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice (T, P<0.001; genotype, n.s.; I, n.s.). D) ITT of old female <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice (T, P<0.001; G, P<0.01; I, n.s.). E) Glucose-stimulated insulin release in young female <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice (T, P<0.001; G, n.s.; I, n.s.). F) Glucose-stimulated insulin release in old female <i>Id2−/−</i> and WT mice (T, n.s.; G, P = 0.055; I, n.s.). No effect of aging was observed in the glucose tolerance of either WT or <i>Id2</i>−/− females (RM-ANOVAs, n.s.). An aging effect of insulin sensitivity was observed for WT and <i>Id2</i>−/− females (T, P<0.001; age, P<0.001; I P<0.001). Values shown represent mean ± SEM. **p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity", "females"], "article_id"=>786344, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Glucose_tolerance_insulin_sensitivity_and_insulin_release_in_Id2_8722_8722_females_is_unaltered_/786344", "title"=>"Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in <i>Id2−/−</i> females is unaltered.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187868"], "description"=>"<p>A) Shows a representative PET acquired image of FDG uptake in sagittal plane highlighting iBAT (dorsal) with high uptake. The injection site (right eye) and bladder are also visible. B) Quantitative analysis of FDG uptake in forelimb skeletal muscle in WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice represented as SUV (ANOVA: genotype (G), P = 0.152; sex (S), P<0.05; interaction (I), P = 0.108). C) Micro PET images of FDG uptake in iBAT at transverse (top) and coronal (bottom) planes for WT and mice. D) Quantitative analysis of the iBAT FDG uptake in WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice represented as standard uptake value (SUV) (G, P<0.01; S, n.s.; I, n.s.). E) Activated iBAT volumes obtained from micro PET studies of WT and <i>Id2−/−</i> mice (G, P<0.001; S, P<0.001; I, n.s.). F) Activated iBAT volumes of WT mice show a negative correlation with the body mass, which was not observed in the <i>Id2−/−</i> mice. Values shown represent mean ± SEM. *p<0.05 and **p<0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity", "mice", "elevated", "fdg", "uptake", "activated", "interscapular", "adipose"], "article_id"=>786347, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Id2_8722_8722_mice_display_elevated_FDG_uptake_and_activated_volume_of_interscapular_brown_adipose_tissue_iBAT_/786347", "title"=>"<i>Id2−/−</i> mice display elevated FDG uptake and activated volume of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187869"], "description"=>"<p>A) Total TG content of tibialis anterior muscle (ANOVA: genotype (G), n.s.; sex (S), P<0.05; interaction (I), n.s.). B) Total DAG content of tibialis anterior muscle (G, n.s.; S, P<0.01; I, n.s.). C) DAG species analysis. DAG species are abbreviated as two contributing fatty acyl groups: A, E, S, O, L and P denote arachidonoyl, eicosapentanoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl, linoleoyl and palmitoyl groups, respectively. Values represent mean ± SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01 and ***p<0.001 are Turkey post-hoc tests following two way ANOVA for TG, DAG or each DAG species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity", "triglyceride", "diacylglycerol", "profiles"], "article_id"=>786348, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Skeletal_muscle_triglyceride_TG_and_diacylglycerol_DAG_profiles_in_Id2_8722_8722_mice_/786348", "title"=>"Skeletal muscle triglyceride (TG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) profiles in <i>Id2−/−</i> mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187885", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187886", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187887", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187888", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187889", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187890", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187891"], "description"=>"<div><p>Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our earlier studies have demonstrated a role for ID2 in the input pathway, core clock function and output pathways of the mouse circadian system. We have also reported that <i>Id2</i> null (<i>Id2</i>−/−) mice are lean with low gonadal white adipose tissue deposits and lower lipid content in the liver. These results coincided with altered or disrupted circadian expression profiles of liver genes including those involved in lipid metabolism. In the present phenotypic study we intended to decipher, on a sex-specific basis, the role of ID2 in glucose metabolism and in the circadian regulation of activity, important components of energy balance. We find that <i>Id2</i>−/− mice exhibited altered daily and circadian rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity; activity profiles extended further into the late night/dark phase of the 24-hr cycle, despite mice showing reduced total locomotor activity. Also, male <i>Id2−/−</i> mice consumed a greater amount of food relative to body mass, and displayed less weight gain. <i>Id2−/−</i> females had smaller adipocytes, suggesting sexual-dimorphic programing of adipogenesis. We observed increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in male <i>Id2−/−</i> mice, which was exacerbated in older animals. FDG-PET analysis revealed increased glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue of male <i>Id2</i>−/− mice, suggesting increased glucose metabolism and thermogenesis in these tissues. Reductions in intramuscular triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol were detected in male <i>Id2</i>−/− mice, highlighting its possible mechanistic role in enhanced insulin sensitivity in these mice. Our findings indicate a role for ID2 as a regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, and in the circadian control of feeding/locomotor behavior; and contribute to the understanding of the development of obesity and diabetes, particularly in shift work personnel among whom incidence of such metabolic disorders is elevated.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Endocrine system", "Diabetic endocrinology", "Endocrine physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "muscle", "Physiological processes", "Chronobiology", "Energy metabolism", "homeostasis", "Integrative physiology", "genetics", "Gene function", "Genetic mutation", "neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "mouse", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Animal physiology", "Endocrinology", "hormones", "insulin", "nutrition", "obesity", "ablation", "altered", "circadian", "feeding", "sex-specific", "enhancement", "elevated", "glucose", "uptake", "skeletal", "adipose"], "article_id"=>786358, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Deepa Mathew", "Peng Zhou", "Cameron M. Pywell", "Daan R. van der Veen", "Jinping Shao", "Yang Xi", "Nicolle A. Bonar", "Alyssa D. Hummel", "Sarah Chapman", "W. Matthew Leevy", "Giles E. Duffield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073064.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Ablation_of_the_Id2_Gene_Results_in_Altered_Circadian_Feeding_Behavior_and_Sex_Specific_Enhancement_of_Insulin_Sensitivity_and_Elevated_Glucose_Uptake_in_Skeletal_Muscle_and_Brown_Adipose_Tissue/786358", "title"=>"Ablation of the <i>Id2</i> Gene Results in Altered Circadian Feeding Behavior, and Sex-Specific Enhancement of Insulin Sensitivity and Elevated Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle and Brown Adipose Tissue", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:22:15"}

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Relative Metric

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