A Mechanism for Value-Sensitive Decision-Making
Publication Date
September 02, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Darren Pais, Patrick M. Hogan, Thomas Schlegel, Nigel R. Franks, et al
Volume
8
Issue
9
Pages
e73216
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0073216
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24023835
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3759446
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24023835
Web of Science
000324238400053
Scopus
84897919646
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/mechanism-valuesensitive-decisionmaking
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A Mechanism for Value-Sensitive Decision-Making", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Darren", "last_name"=>"Pais"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick M.", "last_name"=>"Hogan"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Schlegel"}, {"first_name"=>"Nigel R.", "last_name"=>"Franks"}, {"first_name"=>"Naomi E.", "last_name"=>"Leonard"}, {"first_name"=>"James A. R.", "last_name"=>"Marshall"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"563050817", "sgr"=>"84897919646", "issn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24023835", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897919646", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0073216"}, "id"=>"cd9ece32-d78e-345b-a7c8-f7581ca45378", "abstract"=>"We present a dynamical systems analysis of a decision-making mechanism inspired by collective choice in house-hunting honeybee swarms, revealing the crucial role of cross-inhibitory 'stop-signalling' in improving the decision-making capabilities. We show that strength of cross-inhibition is a decision-parameter influencing how decisions depend both on the difference in value and on the mean value of the alternatives; this is in contrast to many previous mechanistic models of decision-making, which are typically sensitive to decision accuracy rather than the value of the option chosen. The strength of cross-inhibition determines when deadlock over similarly valued alternatives is maintained or broken, as a function of the mean value; thus, changes in cross-inhibition strength allow adaptive time-dependent decision-making strategies. Cross-inhibition also tunes the minimum difference between alternatives required for reliable discrimination, in a manner similar to Weber's law of just-noticeable difference. Finally, cross-inhibition tunes the speed-accuracy trade-off realised when differences in the values of the alternatives are sufficiently large to matter. We propose that the model, and the significant role of the values of the alternatives, may describe other decision-making systems, including intracellular regulatory circuits, and simple neural circuits, and may provide guidance in the design of decision-making algorithms for artificial systems, particularly those functioning without centralised control.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mechanism-valuesensitive-decisionmaking", "reader_count"=>72, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>29, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Computer Science"=>8, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Mathematics"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Psychology"=>10, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>10}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>8}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>2, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187901"], "description"=>"<p>The three-alternative model simulated here is a simple extension of the two-alternative model of Eq. 1, as described in section S.2 of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone.0073216.s012\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>. Noise parameter .</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simulation", "shows", "sufficiently", "deadlock", "persists", "discovered"], "article_id"=>786368, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren Pais", "Patrick M. Hogan", "Thomas Schlegel", "Nigel R. Franks", "Naomi E. Leonard", "James A. R. Marshall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stochastic_simulation_shows_that_for_two_sufficiently_poor_but_equal_alternatives_deadlock_between_the_two_persists_until_a_third_superior_alternative_is_discovered_at_time_at_which_point_it_is_selected_by_the_decision_maker_/786368", "title"=>"Stochastic simulation shows that for two sufficiently poor but equal alternatives, deadlock between the two persists until a third, superior alternative is discovered (at time ), at which point it is selected by the decision-maker.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187899"], "description"=>"<p>When the accumulator for alternative or ( or ) surpasses a decision threshold, illustrated with a dashed line, the corresponding alternative is selected by the decision-maker. Flow lines indicate sample noise-free trajectories over time, demonstrating fast convergence to a slow, invariant manifold. A singular perturbation analysis (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone.0073216.s012\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>) proves this separation of timescales, and gives the expression Eq. 2 for the slow manifold (magenta line), which is independent of (thus, the slow manifold is the same in the right and left plots). The dynamics on the slow manifold depend on parameters of the decision problem and and of the cross-inhibition rate ; stable attractors (filled circles) can co-exist with unstable saddle-nodes (hollow circles) on the slow manifold. Thus, decision-making can be reduced to a single decision-variable; this is the form of several classic models of decision-making, including those implementing provably optimal statistical tests.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["simplex", "vertex", "corresponding", "uncommitted", "decision-maker", "committed"], "article_id"=>786366, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren Pais", "Patrick M. Hogan", "Thomas Schlegel", "Nigel R. Franks", "Naomi E. Leonard", "James A. R. Marshall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decision_making_dynamics_on_the_unit_simplex_with_vertex_corresponding_to_a_fully_uncommitted_decision_maker_vertex_to_a_decision_maker_fully_committed_to_alternative_and_vertex_to_a_decision_maker_fully_committed_to_alternative_/786366", "title"=>"Decision-making dynamics on the unit simplex with vertex corresponding to a fully uncommitted decision-maker (), vertex to a decision-maker fully committed to alternative (, and vertex ) to a decision-maker fully committed to alternative ().", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187904"], "description"=>"<p>According to parameterisation of the decision problem and decision-maker, the dynamics include <b>(i)</b> pitchfork bifurcation as a function of cross-inhibition rate in the equal alternatives case, <b>(ii)</b> saddle-node bifurcation as a function of cross-inhibition in the unequal alternatives case, and <b>(iii)</b> hysteresis as a function of difference in value of alternatives . Fixed points are projected onto the line as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone.0073216.s012\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone.0073216.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S4</a>. Blue dots indicate stable attractors, and red indicate unstable saddle points. Decision thresholds at are indicated by dashed lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bifurcation", "behaviour", "stop-signal"], "article_id"=>786371, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren Pais", "Patrick M. Hogan", "Thomas Schlegel", "Nigel R. Franks", "Naomi E. Leonard", "James A. R. Marshall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Full_bifurcation_behaviour_of_the_stop_signal_model_of_Eq_1_/786371", "title"=>"Full bifurcation behaviour of the stop-signal model of Eq. 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187903"], "description"=>"<p>(Left) Bifurcation set as a function of and , for fixed . This generalises the result of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone-0073216-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>, for which . The grey region corresponds to parameters where the decision dynamics have a single stable attractor (pre-bifurcation), whereas the white region corresponds to those having two stable attractors and one saddle node (post-bifurcation). Sample phase-portraits illustrate how the positions of these fixed points change according to and . Plots (a) and (b) illustrate the results of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone-0073216-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>, in which . Increasing moves the stable attractor towards the superior alternative in the pre-bifurcation case (see plot (c)), although it may still correspond to a population state in which threshold is reached for neither alternative; whereas increasing in the post-bifurcation case moves the saddle point towards the inferior alternative, thereby increasing the basin of attraction for the superior alternative (see plot (d)). Thus for a decision with given that is too low to precipitate a threshold decision, increasing precipitates a decision, in which the more valuable alternative is more likely to be selected. (Middle) The relationship between and the minimum required for a unique attractor for the best alternative depends on . (Right) The relationship between and the minimum required for a single alternative to unambiguously be considered the best converges on a linear relationship, with slope determined by . This is similar to Weber's law of just noticeable difference, observed in psychological studies, with determining the Weber coefficient.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["decision-making", "alternatives", "cross-inhibition"], "article_id"=>786370, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren Pais", "Patrick M. Hogan", "Thomas Schlegel", "Nigel R. Franks", "Naomi E. Leonard", "James A. R. Marshall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dependence_of_decision_making_over_alternatives_on_absolute_difference_in_value_of_alternatives_cross_inhibition_strength_and_mean_value_of_alternatives_/786370", "title"=>"Dependence of decision-making over alternatives on absolute difference in value of alternatives , cross-inhibition strength , and mean value of alternatives .", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187914", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187915", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187916", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187917", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187918", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187919", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187920", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187921", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187923", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187924", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187925", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187926"], "description"=>"<div><p>We present a dynamical systems analysis of a decision-making mechanism inspired by collective choice in house-hunting honeybee swarms, revealing the crucial role of cross-inhibitory ‘stop-signalling’ in improving the decision-making capabilities. We show that strength of cross-inhibition is a decision-parameter influencing how decisions depend both on the difference in value and on the mean value of the alternatives; this is in contrast to many previous mechanistic models of decision-making, which are typically sensitive to decision accuracy rather than the value of the option chosen. The strength of cross-inhibition determines when deadlock over similarly valued alternatives is maintained or broken, as a function of the mean value; thus, changes in cross-inhibition strength allow adaptive time-dependent decision-making strategies. Cross-inhibition also tunes the minimum difference between alternatives required for reliable discrimination, in a manner similar to Weber's law of just-noticeable difference. Finally, cross-inhibition tunes the speed-accuracy trade-off realised when differences in the values of the alternatives are sufficiently large to matter. We propose that the model, and the significant role of the values of the alternatives, may describe other decision-making systems, including intracellular regulatory circuits, and simple neural circuits, and may provide guidance in the design of decision-making algorithms for artificial systems, particularly those functioning without centralised control.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["value-sensitive"], "article_id"=>786379, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren Pais", "Patrick M. Hogan", "Thomas Schlegel", "Nigel R. Franks", "Naomi E. Leonard", "James A. R. Marshall"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Mechanism_for_Value_Sensitive_Decision_Making_/786379", "title"=>"A Mechanism for Value-Sensitive Decision-Making", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187906"], "description"=>"<p>When two attractors for alternatives of different values exist, however, the presence of the unstable saddle-node can improve error rate without compromising reaction time (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone.0073216.s012\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone.0073216.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S5</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trade-off", "differences", "alternatives", "sufficiently", "attractor", "observed", "speed-accuracy", "qualitatively", "realised", "statistically-optimal", "drift-diffusion", "decision-making"], "article_id"=>786373, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren Pais", "Patrick M. Hogan", "Thomas Schlegel", "Nigel R. Franks", "Naomi E. Leonard", "James A. R. Marshall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Speed_accuracy_trade_off_when_differences_between_alternatives_are_sufficiently_large_that_a_single_attractor_for_the_best_alternative_exists_the_observed_speed_accuracy_trade_off_is_qualitatively_similar_to_that_realised_by_the_statistically_optimal_dri/786373", "title"=>"Speed-accuracy trade-off when differences between alternatives are sufficiently large that a single attractor for the best alternative exists; the observed speed-accuracy trade-off is qualitatively similar to that realised by the statistically-optimal drift-diffusion model of decision-making (see Text S1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1187900"], "description"=>"<p>A critical cross-inhibition level can be calculated, below which stable decision-deadlock results due to a single stable attractor on the line. Increasing the strength of cross-inhibition above the critical threshold , this attractor becomes unstable and two stable attractors, one for each alternative, emerge from it and rapidly move apart <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone.0073216-Seeley2\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>; in this situation one alternative will thus be chosen at random by the system. As the equation and plot for make clear, the level of cross-inhibition required to break deadlock decreases with increasing value of the two alternatives. Thus, holding cross-inhibition level constant, decisions over equal but low value alternatives can result in deadlock, while decisions over equal but high value alternatives can result in a random choice. This can lead to sophisticated decision dynamics (Figs. 3 and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216#pone.0073216.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["decision-making"], "article_id"=>786367, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren Pais", "Patrick M. Hogan", "Thomas Schlegel", "Nigel R. Franks", "Naomi E. Leonard", "James A. R. Marshall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073216.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Value_dependent_decision_making_over_equal_alternatives_/786367", "title"=>"Value-dependent decision-making over equal alternatives.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-02 02:24:46"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Systems science", "average_usage"=>[271, 427, 520, 640, 714, 773, 841, 899, 961, 1057, 1131, 1229, 1280, 1364]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[284, 475, 603, 722, 826, 928, 1026, 1129, 1225, 1310, 1390, 1468, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}]}
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