Spatial Heterogeneity in the Strength of Plant-Herbivore Interactions under Predation Risk: The Tale of Bison Foraging in Wolf Country
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{"title"=>"Spatial Heterogeneity in the Strength of Plant-Herbivore Interactions under Predation Risk: The Tale of Bison Foraging in Wolf Country", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Léa", "last_name"=>"Harvey"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Fortin"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24039909", "sgr"=>"84901872174", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0073324", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84901872174", "pui"=>"563065729", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"803f9f02-98b8-3662-9c32-d8dfe4de1cd8", "abstract"=>"Spatial heterogeneity in the strength of trophic interactions is a fundamental property of food web spatial dynamics. The feeding effort of herbivores should reflect adaptive decisions that only become rewarding when foraging gains exceed 1) the metabolic costs, 2) the missed opportunity costs of not foraging elsewhere, and 3) the foraging costs of anti-predator behaviour. Two aspects of these costs remain largely unexplored: the link between the strength of plant-herbivore interactions and the spatial scale of food-quality assessment, and the predator-prey spatial game. We modeled the foraging effort of free-ranging plains bison (Bison bison bison) in winter, within a mosaic of discrete meadows. Spatial patterns of bison herbivory were largely driven by a search for high net energy gains and, to a lesser degree, by the spatial game with grey wolves (Canis lupus). Bison decreased local feeding effort with increasing metabolic and missed opportunity costs. Bison herbivory was most consistent with a broad-scale assessment of food patch quality, i.e., bison grazed more intensively in patches with a low missed opportunity cost relative to other patches available in the landscape. Bison and wolves had a higher probability of using the same meadows than expected randomly. This co-occurrence indicates wolves are ahead in the spatial game they play with bison. Wolves influenced bison foraging at fine scale, as bison tended to consume less biomass at each feeding station when in meadows where the risk of a wolf's arrival was relatively high. Also, bison left more high-quality vegetation in large than small meadows. This behavior does not maximize their energy intake rate, but is consistent with bison playing a shell game with wolves. Our assessment of bison foraging in a natural setting clarifies the complex nature of plant-herbivore interactions under predation risk, and reveals how spatial patterns in herbivory emerge from multi-scale landscape heterogeneity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/spatial-heterogeneity-strength-plantherbivore-interactions-under-predation-risk-tale-bison-foraging", "reader_count"=>41, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201592"], "description"=>"<p>Independent variables included snow water equivalent, missed opportunity costs of foraging in that meadow and not elsewhere in the landscape (), index of wolf presence (absence  = 0, presence  = 1) and log-transformed meadow area. A total of 255 quadrats of plant biomass were assessed in individual craters comprised in 23 meadows in Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) during the winters of 1998 and 2011. Pseudo R<sup>2</sup> = 0.66. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["errors", "top-ranking", "linear", "predicting", "biomass", "consumed", "foraging", "crater"], "article_id"=>797342, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Léa Harvey", "Daniel Fortin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073324.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coefficients_and_standard_errors_for_the_top_ranking_mixed_effects_linear_model_predicting_the_plant_biomass_consumed_g_m_2_in_a_foraging_crater_in_winter_/797342", "title"=>"Coefficients and standard errors for the top-ranking mixed effects linear model predicting the plant biomass consumed (g/m<sup>2</sup>) in a foraging crater in winter.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:43:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201595"], "description"=>"<p><b>Note:</b> E: Plant profitability (kJ/min) in the landscape, meadow or patch, SWE: Snow water equivalent (cm), MOC: Missed opportunity costs (kJ/min), Wolf: Index of wolf presence, ln(MS): log-transformed meadow size (ha), ΔAIC: difference in Akaike information criterion between the current model and the lowest AIC.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["competing", "explaining", "biomass", "consumed", "foraging", "craters", "plains", "bison"], "article_id"=>797345, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Léa Harvey", "Daniel Fortin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073324.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_level_of_support_by_competing_models_explaining_plant_biomass_consumed_in_foraging_craters_by_plains_bison_in_winter_/797345", "title"=>"Relative level of support by competing models explaining plant biomass consumed in foraging craters by plains bison in winter.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:43:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201596"], "description"=>"<p>Independent variables included snow water equivalent, missed opportunity costs of foraging in that meadow and not elsewhere in the landscape (), index of wolf presence (absence  = 0, presence  = 1) and log-transformed meadow area. A total of 144 foraging craters were recorded in 26 meadows in Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) during the winters of 1997, 1998 and 2011. Pseudo R<sup>2</sup> = 0.31.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["errors", "linear", "predicting", "foraging", "crater", "meadows"], "article_id"=>797346, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Léa Harvey", "Daniel Fortin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073324.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coefficients_and_standard_errors_of_a_linear_mixed_effects_model_predicting_the_area_ha_of_foraging_crater_in_individual_meadows_in_winter_/797346", "title"=>"Coefficients and standard errors of a linear mixed effects model predicting the area (ha) of foraging crater in individual meadows in winter.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:43:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201593"], "description"=>"<p>Independent variables included snow water equivalent, missed opportunity costs of foraging in that meadow and not elsewhere in the landscape (), index of wolf presence (absence  = 0, presence  = 1) and log-transformed meadow area. N = 221 surveys in 26 meadows in Prince Albert National Park (Saskatchewan, Canada) during the winters of 1997, 1998 and 2011.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["errors", "mixed-effects", "logistic", "regression", "predicting", "probability", "bison", "foraged", "meadow"], "article_id"=>797343, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Léa Harvey", "Daniel Fortin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073324.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coefficients_and_standard_errors_for_a_mixed_effects_logistic_regression_model_predicting_the_probability_that_bison_foraged_in_a_given_meadow_in_winter_/797343", "title"=>"Coefficients and standard errors for a mixed-effects logistic regression model predicting the probability that bison foraged in a given meadow in winter.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:43:09"}

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Relative Metric

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