Wnt11b Is Involved in Cilia-Mediated Symmetry Breakage during Xenopus Left-Right Development
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{"title"=>"Wnt11b Is Involved in Cilia-Mediated Symmetry Breakage during Xenopus Left-Right Development", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Walentek", "scopus_author_id"=>"35799190400"}, {"first_name"=>"Isabelle", "last_name"=>"Schneider", "scopus_author_id"=>"54382353500"}, {"first_name"=>"Axel", "last_name"=>"Schweickert", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506773435"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Blum", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202379878"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24058481", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0073646", "pui"=>"369813379", "isbn"=>"1932-6203; 1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84884125572", "sgr"=>"84884125572"}, "id"=>"aab3bb1d-c0e7-32ad-bca8-e88b821ae153", "abstract"=>"Breakage of bilateral symmetry in amphibian embryos depends on the development of a ciliated epithelium at the gastrocoel roof during early neurulation. Motile cilia at the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP) give rise to leftward flow of extracellular fluids. Flow is required for asymmetric gene expression and organ morphogenesis. Wnt signaling has previously been involved in two steps, Wnt/ß-catenin mediated induction of Foxj1, a regulator of motile cilia, and Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) dependent cilia polarization to the posterior pole of cells. We have studied Wnt11b in the context of laterality determination, as this ligand was reported to activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt11b was found to be expressed in the so-called superficial mesoderm (SM), from which the GRP derives. Surprisingly, Foxj1 was only marginally affected in loss-of-function experiments, indicating that another ligand acts in this early step of laterality specification. Wnt11b was required, however, for polarization of GRP cilia and GRP morphogenesis, in line with the known function of Wnt/PCP in cilia-driven leftward flow. In addition Xnr1 and Coco expression in the lateral-most GRP cells, which sense flow and generate the first asymmetric signal, was attenuated in morphants, involving Wnt signaling in yet another process related to symmetry breakage in Xenopus.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/wnt11b-involved-ciliamediated-symmetry-breakage-during-xenopus-leftright-development", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1203870"], "description"=>"<p>Embryos were injected at the 4-cell stage into the prospective dorsal marginal zone and dorsal explants were prepared at stage 17. Specimens were processed for immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess cilia polarization, ciliation rate and cell surface area. (A–D) Presence and polarization of cilia, as shown by acetylated tubulin IHC to stain cilia (red) and phalloidin to stain actin (green) in order to outline cell boundaries. (A) Control uninjected (uninj.) specimen. (B) <i>Wnt11b</i> morphant. (C) Specimen injected with dominant-negative <i>Wnt11b</i> DNA (<i>dnWnt11b</i>). (D) Specimen injected with wild-type <i>Wnt11b</i> DNA. (A′–D′) Evaluation of ciliation and polarization. Green = posterior localization of cilia, yellow = other localization, red = cells without cilia. (E, F) Evaluation of results. (E) Cilia polarization. (F) Apical cell surface area. ***Very highly significant (p<0.001). a = anterior, l = left, p = posterior, r = right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cilia", "polarization", "grp"], "article_id"=>798953, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Walentek", "Isabelle Schneider", "Axel Schweickert", "Martin Blum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073646.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wnt11b_is_required_for_cilia_polarization_and_GRP_morphogenesis_/798953", "title"=>"<i>Wnt11b</i> is required for cilia polarization and GRP morphogenesis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-13 01:34:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1203871"], "description"=>"<p>Embryos were injected at the 4-cell stage into the DMZ and analyzed for <i>Xnr1</i> (A–E) or <i>Coco</i> expression (F–J) by whole mount in situ hybridization. Wildtype expression patterns (A, F) were reduced (B, G) or absent/strongly reduced (C, H) in <i>Wnt11b</i> morphants and in embryos injected with a <i>dnWnt11b</i> DNA construct, while signal intensities were unaltered upon ectopic wildtype <i>Wnt11b</i> expression from a DNA construct (D, I). (E, J) Quantification of results. Note that co-injection of wild-type <i>Wnt11b</i> DNA was sufficient to partially rescue <i>Xnr1</i> expression at the GRP of <i>Wnt11b</i> morphants. ***Very highly significant (p<0.001). a = anterior, l = left, p = posterior, r = right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["manipulated"], "article_id"=>798954, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Walentek", "Isabelle Schneider", "Axel Schweickert", "Martin Blum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073646.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Altered_Xnr1_and_Coco_expression_in_Wnt11b_manipulated_embryos_/798954", "title"=>"Altered <i>Xnr1</i> and <i>Coco</i> expression in <i>Wnt11b</i> manipulated embryos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-13 01:34:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1203876", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1203877"], "description"=>"<div><p>Breakage of bilateral symmetry in amphibian embryos depends on the development of a ciliated epithelium at the gastrocoel roof during early neurulation. Motile cilia at the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP) give rise to leftward flow of extracellular fluids. Flow is required for asymmetric gene expression and organ morphogenesis. Wnt signaling has previously been involved in two steps, Wnt/ß-catenin mediated induction of <i>Foxj1</i>, a regulator of motile cilia, and Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) dependent cilia polarization to the posterior pole of cells. We have studied <i>Wnt11b</i> in the context of laterality determination, as this ligand was reported to activate canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. <i>Wnt11b</i> was found to be expressed in the so-called superficial mesoderm (SM), from which the GRP derives. Surprisingly, <i>Foxj1</i> was only marginally affected in loss-of-function experiments, indicating that another ligand acts in this early step of laterality specification. <i>Wnt11b</i> was required, however, for polarization of GRP cilia and GRP morphogenesis, in line with the known function of Wnt/PCP in cilia-driven leftward flow. In addition <i>Xnr1</i> and <i>Coco</i> expression in the lateral-most GRP cells, which sense flow and generate the first asymmetric signal, was attenuated in morphants, involving Wnt signaling in yet another process related to symmetry breakage in <i>Xenopus</i>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cilia-mediated", "symmetry", "breakage", "left-right"], "article_id"=>798959, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Walentek", "Isabelle Schneider", "Axel Schweickert", "Martin Blum"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073646.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073646.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wnt11b_Is_Involved_in_Cilia_Mediated_Symmetry_Breakage_during_Xenopus_Left_Right_Development/798959", "title"=>"<i>Wnt11b</i> Is Involved in Cilia-Mediated Symmetry Breakage during <i>Xenopus</i> Left-Right Development", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-09-13 01:34:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1203867"], "description"=>"<p>(A–D) <i>Wnt11b</i> mRNA expression as determined by whole-mount in situ hybridization of staged embryos at stage (st.) 9.5 (A), st. 10.5 (B), st. 11.5 (C) and st. 13 (D). Specimens are shown in vegetal (A–D) or dorsal (D′) view. Please note that <i>Wnt11b</i> mRNA was present in the superficial mesoderm (sm; white arrowheads) on the dorsal side, as shown in bisected embryos in (A′) and (B′), while expression on the ventral side extended into deeper tissue (B′). Note also expression in the circumblastular collar (cbc) of involuting cells, as demonstrated in a histological section (D″). (E, F) Altered <i>Pitx2c</i> expression in <i>Wnt11b</i>-manipulated embryos. (E) Representative specimens. (F) Quantification of results. Green arrowheads, wild-type expression; red arrowheads, ectopic or absent expression. Dashed lines in (A, B, D′) indicate planes of section. *** Very highly significant (p<0.001). a = anterior, an = animal, d = dorsal, l = left, n = number, p = posterior, r = right, uninj. = uninjected, v = ventral, veg = vegetal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["superficial", "mesoderm", "asymmetric", "lateral"], "article_id"=>798950, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Walentek", "Isabelle Schneider", "Axel Schweickert", "Martin Blum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073646.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wnt11b_expression_in_the_superficial_mesoderm_is_required_for_asymmetric_Pitx2c_expression_in_the_lateral_plate_mesoderm_/798950", "title"=>"<i>Wnt11b</i> expression in the superficial mesoderm is required for asymmetric <i>Pitx2c</i> expression in the lateral plate mesoderm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-13 01:34:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1203868"], "description"=>"<p>Flow analysis in wildtype and manipulated specimens. (A–C) Frequency distribution of trajectory angles in representative explants of uninjected control embryos (uninj., A), <i>Wnt11bMO</i> (B) and <i>Wnt11b</i> DNA (C) injected specimens. Dashed circles indicate maximum frequency (in %), n represents the number of tracked particles above threshold. a = anterior, l = left, p = posterior, r = right, v = average velocity of particles, ρ = quality of flow. (D, E) Compiled results of all embryos analyzed for flow directionality (D) and velocity of fluorescent beads added to GRP explants at stage 17 (E). Note that both parameters were significantly reduced in <i>Wnt11b</i> morphants or <i>Wnt11b</i> DNA injected embryos. In (D, E), n represents number of analyzed explants. * Significant (p<0.05), ***Very highly significant (p<0.001), n = number of analyzed explants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["leftward"], "article_id"=>798951, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Walentek", "Isabelle Schneider", "Axel Schweickert", "Martin Blum"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073646.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wnt11b_is_required_for_leftward_flow_at_the_GRP_/798951", "title"=>"<i>Wnt11b</i> is required for leftward flow at the GRP.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-13 01:34:45"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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