mtDNA from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman Period Suggests a Genetic Link between the Indian Subcontinent and Mesopotamian Cradle of Civilization
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{"title"=>"mtDNA from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman Period Suggests a Genetic Link between the Indian Subcontinent and Mesopotamian Cradle of Civilization", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Henryk W.", "last_name"=>"Witas"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacek", "last_name"=>"Tomczyk"}, {"first_name"=>"Krystyna", "last_name"=>"Jędrychowska-Dańska"}, {"first_name"=>"Gyaneshwer", "last_name"=>"Chaubey"}, {"first_name"=>"Tomasz", "last_name"=>"Płoszaj"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903674601", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0073682", "issn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"563072024", "sgr"=>"84903674601", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24040024"}, "id"=>"23b5a136-633c-31e7-a1db-ddd59914551d", "abstract"=>"Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth) of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal) Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today's Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya). They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be DeltaF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Delta32 CCR5.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mtdna-early-bronze-age-roman-period-suggests-genetic-link-between-indian-subcontinent-mesopotamian-c", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "India"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201169", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201170", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201171"], "description"=>"<div><p>Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth) of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal) Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting today’s Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya). They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be ΔF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Δ32 CCR5.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["roman", "suggests", "indian", "subcontinent", "mesopotamian", "cradle"], "article_id"=>797022, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Henryk W. Witas", "Jacek Tomczyk", "Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska", "Gyaneshwer Chaubey", "Tomasz Płoszaj"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_mtDNA_from_the_Early_Bronze_Age_to_the_Roman_Period_Suggests_a_Genetic_Link_between_the_Indian_Subcontinent_and_Mesopotamian_Cradle_of_Civilization_/797022", "title"=>"mtDNA from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman Period Suggests a Genetic Link between the Indian Subcontinent and Mesopotamian Cradle of Civilization", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201141"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Four specimens unearthed at Tell Masaikh and Tell Ashara archaeological sites in the middle Euphrates valley. <b>B.</b> Haplotypes found in people living today in Tibet <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682#pone.0073682-Kong1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>, Himalayas <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682#pone.0073682-Sharma1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a> and Pakistan <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682#pone.0073682-Rakha1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a> lacking 16311 mutation (reverse mutation) as observed in MK 11G 107. <b>C.</b> Haplotype profiles of scientific staff involved in collection of skeletal material, DNA isolation and its analysis. Mutation differences are shown using revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682#pone.0073682-Andrews1\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutation", "differences", "studied", "specimens"], "article_id"=>797004, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Henryk W. Witas", "Jacek Tomczyk", "Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska", "Gyaneshwer Chaubey", "Tomasz Płoszaj"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_position_and_mutation_differences_identified_in_studied_specimens_and_retrieved_in_moderns_/797004", "title"=>"Phylogenetic position and mutation differences identified in studied specimens and retrieved in moderns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201168"], "description"=>"<p>The most common ones among today’s inhabitants of the northern part of the Indian subcontinent were identified <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682#pone.0073682-Dastidar1\" target=\"_blank\">[39]</a>. <b>A.</b> The pattern of identification of the chromosome 16p fragments, deletion of which is responsible for α-thalassemia, shown as filled/unfilled bars indicating regions of certainty/uncertainty of breakpoints. Successful amplification of the <i>HBM</i> gene located in close proximity to the region of deletions was used as a positive control, confirming the presence of the thalassemia-predisposing region of the fossil chromosome 16, i.e. the presence of target sequences in the <i>HBA1</i> and <i>HBA2</i> gene cluster. Although primers were designed to identify 3.7 and 4.2 kb deletion variants, a few others were typed as well. <b>B.</b> Pattern of SNP IVS-1 nt 5 G>C identification within the <i>HBB</i> gene responsible for β-thalassemia, and the sequenogram of the target region. Primer sequences and PCR conditions are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682#pone.0073682.s001\" target=\"_blank\">table S1</a>. The size of exons and PCR products does not reflect real proportions of assigned fragments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["globin", "mutations", "specimen", "mk", "11g"], "article_id"=>797021, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Henryk W. Witas", "Jacek Tomczyk", "Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska", "Gyaneshwer Chaubey", "Tomasz Płoszaj"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_search_for_the_945_and_946_globin_gene_cluster_mutations_in_specimen_MK_11G_107_/797021", "title"=>"The search for the α and β globin gene cluster mutations in specimen MK 11G 107.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201143"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> Upper molar FDI 26, preparation 1; <b>B.</b> Upper molar FDI 26, preparation 2; <b>C.</b> Upper molar FDI 28, preparation 1; <b>D.</b> Upper molar FDI 28, preparation 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tq", "28f", "256", "runs", "pcr", "portions", "pulverized"], "article_id"=>797006, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Henryk W. Witas", "Jacek Tomczyk", "Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska", "Gyaneshwer Chaubey", "Tomasz Płoszaj"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_16270_change_found_in_individual_TQ_28F_256_and_identified_in_four_separate_runs_of_PCR_product_obtained_from_different_portions_of_pulverized_different_teeth_/797006", "title"=>"16270 change found in individual TQ 28F 256 and identified in four separate runs of PCR product obtained from different portions of pulverized different teeth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201161"], "description"=>"<p>M–J network of three observed haplogroups (M49, M61 and M4b) shows the distribution of haplotypes among populations from different geographical regions. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of mtDNAs with that haplotype. The data has been taken from published and unpublished sources given in supplementary (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682#pone.0073682.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["joining", "individuals", "euphrates", "kyrs"], "article_id"=>797016, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Henryk W. Witas", "Jacek Tomczyk", "Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska", "Gyaneshwer Chaubey", "Tomasz Płoszaj"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Median_joining_network_28_of_four_individuals_living_in_the_middle_Euphrates_valley_between_0_2_Kyrs_AD_and_2_5_Kyrs_BC_/797016", "title"=>"Median joining network [28] of four individuals living in the middle Euphrates valley between 0.2 Kyrs AD and 2.5 Kyrs BC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201159"], "description"=>"<p>HVR-I, HVR-II and coding region of mtDNA for individual MK 11G 107; HVR-I for individuals MK 13G 117, TQ 28F 112 and TQ 28F 256. Obtained consensus sequences have been submitted to GenBank and assigned accession numbers KF462390–KF462396.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["haplotypes", "studied", "individuals", "seen", "sequencing", "runs", "performed", "portions", "pulverized"], "article_id"=>797014, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Henryk W. Witas", "Jacek Tomczyk", "Krystyna Jędrychowska-Dańska", "Gyaneshwer Chaubey", "Tomasz Płoszaj"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073682.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Identified_haplotypes_of_studied_individuals_as_seen_from_direct_sequencing_one_of_four_runs_each_performed_on_different_portions_of_pulverized_different_teeth_/797014", "title"=>"Identified haplotypes of studied individuals as seen from direct sequencing (one of four runs each performed on different portions of pulverized different teeth).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:08:27"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[302, 488, 607, 717, 832, 931, 1024, 1117, 1212, 1302, 1389, 1469, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[284, 491, 620, 738, 843, 945, 1043, 1137, 1225, 1315, 1400, 1479, 1555]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[605, 959, 1140, 1273, 1412, 1552, 1709, 1830, 1959, 2077, 2241, 2360, 2456]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[591, 936, 1096, 1257, 1426, 1560, 1700, 1841, 1976, 2133, 2250, 2381, 2482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[253, 430]}]}
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