The Trophy Hunting of African Lions: Scale, Current Management Practices and Factors Undermining Sustainability
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{"title"=>"The Trophy Hunting of African Lions: Scale, Current Management Practices and Factors Undermining Sustainability", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Peter Andrew", "last_name"=>"Lindsey", "scopus_author_id"=>"8585167100"}, {"first_name"=>"Guy Andrew", "last_name"=>"Balme", "scopus_author_id"=>"26967552800"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Funston", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602785022"}, {"first_name"=>"Philipp", "last_name"=>"Henschel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603045158"}, {"first_name"=>"Luke", "last_name"=>"Hunter", "scopus_author_id"=>"34768533400"}, {"first_name"=>"Hilary", "last_name"=>"Madzikanda", "scopus_author_id"=>"24759216100"}, {"first_name"=>"Neil", "last_name"=>"Midlane", "scopus_author_id"=>"54892063000"}, {"first_name"=>"Vincent", "last_name"=>"Nyirenda", "scopus_author_id"=>"55857334800"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369834745", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0073808", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84884233837", "pmid"=>"24058491", "sgr"=>"84884233837"}, "id"=>"8af951a4-e0ad-3290-8483-9dd07bbc35b6", "abstract"=>"The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least 558,000 km2, which comprises 27–32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/trophy-hunting-african-lions-scale-current-management-practices-factors-undermining-sustainability", "reader_count"=>149, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>40, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>40, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>84, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>4, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>42, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>42}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>84}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>3, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Zimbabwe"=>1}, "group_count"=>10}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208375"], "description"=>"<p>Operators’ perceptions of lion population trends in their hunting concessions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["perceptions", "trends"], "article_id"=>802477, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Andrew Lindsey", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Paul Funston", "Philipp Henschel", "Luke Hunter", "Hilary Madzikanda", "Neil Midlane", "Vincent Nyirenda"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073808.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Operators_8217_perceptions_of_lion_population_trends_in_their_hunting_concessions_/802477", "title"=>"Operators’ perceptions of lion population trends in their hunting concessions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:12:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208376"], "description"=>"<p>Rules and processes relating to the allocation of hunting blocks and management of lion hunting in Central and West Africa (derived from legal documents).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["processes", "relating", "allocation", "blocks", "africa"], "article_id"=>802478, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Andrew Lindsey", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Paul Funston", "Philipp Henschel", "Luke Hunter", "Hilary Madzikanda", "Neil Midlane", "Vincent Nyirenda"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073808.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rules_and_processes_relating_to_the_allocation_of_hunting_blocks_and_management_of_lion_hunting_in_Central_and_West_Africa_derived_from_legal_documents_/802478", "title"=>"Rules and processes relating to the allocation of hunting blocks and management of lion hunting in Central and West Africa (derived from legal documents).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:12:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208377"], "description"=>"a<p>In January 2012, a moratorium was imposed on the hunting of lions and leopards in Zambia;</p>b<p>Excluding 27 hunting blocks of unknown size (mostly game ranches);</p>c<p>The smaller figure represents the actual area where hunting has occurred recently (due <i>inter alia</i> to political instability): in the recent past hunting (and lion hunting) was conducted over an area almost twice as large;</p>d<p>Excluding 2 state concessions of unknown size and potentially some private ranches where lions may be hunted;</p>e<p>Excluding 5 blocks of unknown size where lions are on quota and game ranches where lions may be on quota;</p>f<p>Excluding 24 blocks of unknown size where lions are on quota (mainly community areas for which size data are lacking).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lions", "trophy", "occurs"], "article_id"=>802479, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Andrew Lindsey", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Paul Funston", "Philipp Henschel", "Luke Hunter", "Hilary Madzikanda", "Neil Midlane", "Vincent Nyirenda"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073808.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_area_in_which_lions_occur_total_area_in_which_trophy_hunting_occurs_and_the_area_across_which_lions_are_hunted_/802479", "title"=>"The area in which lions occur, total area in which trophy hunting occurs and the area across which lions are hunted.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:12:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208378"], "description"=>"<p>Rules and processes relating to the allocation of hunting blocks and management of lion hunting in southern Africa and Tanzania (derived from surveys with senior officials).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["processes", "relating", "allocation", "blocks", "africa", "tanzania", "surveys"], "article_id"=>802480, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Andrew Lindsey", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Paul Funston", "Philipp Henschel", "Luke Hunter", "Hilary Madzikanda", "Neil Midlane", "Vincent Nyirenda"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073808.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rules_and_processes_relating_to_the_allocation_of_hunting_blocks_and_management_of_lion_hunting_in_southern_Africa_and_Tanzania_derived_from_surveys_with_senior_officials_/802480", "title"=>"Rules and processes relating to the allocation of hunting blocks and management of lion hunting in southern Africa and Tanzania (derived from surveys with senior officials).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:12:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208379"], "description"=>"a<p>Except Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Namibia where there were missing data on the size of some hunting blocks: in those countries we took the mean area per lion on quota for blocks that we had data for;</p>b<p>Note that for Mozambique, Namibia and especially Zimbabwe, the area per lion hunted represents an underestimate as data on the sizes of some hunting blocks where lions are hunted were unavailable and thus not included in the analysis;</p>c<p>In some Namibian conservancies, lion trophy quotas are only issued every second year. The quota figure may exclude some lions hunted on private lands;</p>d<p>In January 2013, a moratorium was imposed on the hunting of lions and leopards in Zambia to provide time to collect information on populations of the species as a basis for establishing quotas;</p>e<p>In Mozambique – the quota for state and community areas in 2013 was 42, but we could not access data for game ranches where lions have been hunted in the past. In 2009, for example, the national quota including game ranches was 60. Lack of data on lion hunting on game ranches means that we may have under-estimated the area across which lions are hunted and the area per lion on quota and lion hunted may be over-estimated somewhat as game ranches are typically somewhat smaller than state hunting blocks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quota", "blocks", "lions"], "article_id"=>802481, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Andrew Lindsey", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Paul Funston", "Philipp Henschel", "Luke Hunter", "Hilary Madzikanda", "Neil Midlane", "Vincent Nyirenda"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073808.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Square_kilometres_lion_on_quota_and_lion_hunted_and_the_percentage_of_hunting_blocks_with_gt_0_5_lions_on_quota_and_lions_hunted_/802481", "title"=>"Square kilometres/lion on quota and lion hunted, and the percentage of hunting blocks with >0.5 lions on quota and lions hunted.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:12:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1208380"], "description"=>"<p>Perceptions of hunting operators regarding problems associated with the trophy hunting of African lions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["operators", "problems", "trophy", "african"], "article_id"=>802482, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Peter Andrew Lindsey", "Guy Andrew Balme", "Paul Funston", "Philipp Henschel", "Luke Hunter", "Hilary Madzikanda", "Neil Midlane", "Vincent Nyirenda"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073808.t005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Perceptions_of_hunting_operators_regarding_problems_associated_with_the_trophy_hunting_of_African_lions_/802482", "title"=>"Perceptions of hunting operators regarding problems associated with the trophy hunting of African lions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-18 02:12:40"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"78", "full-text"=>"105", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"89", "full-text"=>"103", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"74", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"569", "full-text"=>"747", "pdf"=>"49", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"445", "full-text"=>"710", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"180", "full-text"=>"225", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"212", "full-text"=>"245", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"159", "full-text"=>"207", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"285", "full-text"=>"366", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"128", "full-text"=>"164", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"122", "full-text"=>"146", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"134", "full-text"=>"162", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"143", "full-text"=>"197", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"124", "full-text"=>"170", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"73", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"58", "full-text"=>"72", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"98", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"81", "full-text"=>"97", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"103", "full-text"=>"136", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"64", "full-text"=>"77", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"79", "full-text"=>"110", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"91", "full-text"=>"104", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"79", "full-text"=>"95", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"119", "full-text"=>"128", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"79", "full-text"=>"94", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"79", "full-text"=>"97", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"63", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"74", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"147", "full-text"=>"175", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"79", "full-text"=>"81", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"63", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"97", "full-text"=>"109", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"71", "full-text"=>"189", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"73", "full-text"=>"89", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Veterinary science", "average_usage"=>[313, 571, 709, 825, 944, 1048, 1145, 1261, 1354, 1434, 1524, 1599, 1684]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[284, 475, 603, 722, 826, 928, 1026, 1129, 1225, 1310, 1390, 1468, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}]}
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