Global Population Trends and Human Use Patterns of Manta and Mobula Rays
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{"title"=>"Global population trends and human use patterns of Manta and Mobula rays", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christine A.", "last_name"=>"Ward-Paige", "scopus_author_id"=>"8686669100"}, {"first_name"=>"Brendal", "last_name"=>"Davis", "scopus_author_id"=>"55257126700"}, {"first_name"=>"Boris", "last_name"=>"Worm", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701786317"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"605323434", "sgr"=>"84903675916", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24040348", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903675916", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0074835", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"ec66446d-2861-3a35-8102-e3c4a71f6e6e", "abstract"=>"Despite being the world’s largest rays and providing significant revenue through dive tourism, little is known about the population status, exploitation and trade volume of the Mobulidae (mobulids; Manta and Mobula spp.). There is anecdotal evidence, however, that mobulid populations are declining, largely due to the recent emergence of a widespread trade for their gill rakers, which is reflected in increasing Food and Agriculture Organization landings trends. Here, we present results from two dedicated diver surveys, one from the eManta project, which includes summary observations from ninety 10°x10° regions with ∼200–62,000 dives per region, and the other from the Reef Environmental Education Foundation, which includes spatially more detailed observations from 3 regions with ∼4,000–118,000 dives per region. We show that mobulids as a group, which includes eleven species, have globally and regionally restricted distributions, typically have low sighting frequency (<1% of dives) and aggregate in only a few locations. Of the regions surveyed by divers, almost half (47%) report declining mobulid sightings over the last decade. Divers indicate that although mobulid ecotourism occurs in many regions (45% of those reported, n = 41) they are considered protected in only 32% of the regions. Mobulids being fished or sold in local markets were reported from 16% and 12% of regions, respectively, with most being adjacent to mobulid abundance hotspot and ecotourism regions (e.g. Sri Lanka, Indonesia, east Africa). Identification of regions where ecotourism and exploitation are at odds could help prioritize conservation efforts. Vulnerability analysis, using life history characteristics, indicates that Manta spp. are vulnerable to exploitation, tolerating only low fishing mortality rates; data limitations prohibited such analysis for Mobula spp. Our analyses support previous studies in showing the need for improved conservation and monitoring efforts, and suggest that international and enforceable management policies are required to prevent further population decline.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/global-population-trends-human-patterns-manta-mobula-rays-5", "reader_count"=>101, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>28, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>30, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>30}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Sri Lanka"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201678", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201679", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201680", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201681", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201682"], "description"=>"<div><p>Despite being the world’s largest rays and providing significant revenue through dive tourism, little is known about the population status, exploitation and trade volume of the Mobulidae (mobulids; <i>Manta</i> and <i>Mobula</i> spp.). There is anecdotal evidence, however, that mobulid populations are declining, largely due to the recent emergence of a widespread trade for their gill rakers, which is reflected in increasing Food and Agriculture Organization landings trends. Here, we present results from two dedicated diver surveys, one from the eManta project, which includes summary observations from ninety 10°x10° regions with ∼200–62,000 dives per region, and the other from the Reef Environmental Education Foundation, which includes spatially more detailed observations from 3 regions with ∼4,000–118,000 dives per region. We show that mobulids as a group, which includes eleven species, have globally and regionally restricted distributions, typically have low sighting frequency (<1% of dives) and aggregate in only a few locations. Of the regions surveyed by divers, almost half (47%) report declining mobulid sightings over the last decade. Divers indicate that although mobulid ecotourism occurs in many regions (45% of those reported, n = 41) they are considered protected in only 32% of the regions. Mobulids being fished or sold in local markets were reported from 16% and 12% of regions, respectively, with most being adjacent to mobulid abundance hotspot and ecotourism regions (e.g. Sri Lanka, Indonesia, east Africa). Identification of regions where ecotourism and exploitation are at odds could help prioritize conservation efforts. Vulnerability analysis, using life history characteristics, indicates that <i>Manta</i> spp. are vulnerable to exploitation, tolerating only low fishing mortality rates; data limitations prohibited such analysis for <i>Mobula</i> spp. Our analyses support previous studies in showing the need for improved conservation and monitoring efforts, and suggest that international and enforceable management policies are required to prevent further population decline.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trends", "patterns", "rays"], "article_id"=>797417, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christine A. Ward-Paige", "Brendal Davis", "Boris Worm"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Global_Population_Trends_and_Human_Use_Patterns_of_Manta_and_Mobula_Rays/797417", "title"=>"Global Population Trends and Human Use Patterns of <i>Manta</i> and <i>Mobula</i> Rays", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:47:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201676"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are attributes that relate to fecundity (F<sub>min</sub> = minimum fecundity, F<sub>max</sub> = maximum fecundity, F<sub>per</sub> = fecundity period, F<sub>ave</sub> = average fecundity), and life span (T<sub>max</sub> = maximum age, T<sub>mat</sub> = maturity age,). Intrinsic growth rates (<i>r</i>), are calculated from these data. Manta life history characteristics are reported in the methods section, and others are from references <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835#pone.0074835-WardPaige1\" target=\"_blank\">[18]</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835#pone.0074835-Smith1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>797415, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christine A. Ward-Paige", "Brendal Davis", "Boris Worm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Life_history_characteristics_for_Manta_spp_in_comparison_with_other_elasmobranchs_/797415", "title"=>"Life history characteristics for <i>Manta</i> spp. in comparison with other elasmobranchs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:47:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201677"], "description"=>"<p>Data are summarized for Hawaii, tropical eastern Pacific and tropical western Atlantic showing effort and mobulid sighting summaries.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diver"], "article_id"=>797416, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christine A. Ward-Paige", "Brendal Davis", "Boris Worm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_REEF_diver_observation_data_/797416", "title"=>"REEF diver observation data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:47:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201675"], "description"=>"<p>eManta survey questions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>797414, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christine A. Ward-Paige", "Brendal Davis", "Boris Worm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_eManta_survey_questions_/797414", "title"=>"eManta survey questions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:47:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201672"], "description"=>"<p>The number of participants (divers), and the total number of dives per cell across all participants are indicated by square (1–22 divers per cell) and circle size (200-62,190 dives per cell). <i>Manta</i> spp. occurrence as predicted from published habitat suitability models <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835#pone.0074835-Kaschner1\" target=\"_blank\">[22]</a>, is indicated by crosses. eManta survey consists of 90 cells from 373 participants and 616,498 dives.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diver", "occurrence", "manta"], "article_id"=>797411, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christine A. Ward-Paige", "Brendal Davis", "Boris Worm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_eManta_diver_survey_effort_with_predicted_occurrence_of_manta_rays_/797411", "title"=>"eManta diver survey effort with predicted occurrence of manta rays.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:47:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201671"], "description"=>"<p>Globally reported <i>Manta</i> and <i>Mobula</i> landings were derived from the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture FishStatJ dataset <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835#pone.0074835-FAO1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a> by country (in metric tons). The relevant FAO species categories (“Giant manta” and “manta/devil rays, nei”) were pooled. An undifferentiated category of ‘rays, stingrays, manta nei’, was excluded from our dataset, because the proportion of mobulids in this category could not be estimated. No mobulid landings were reported prior to 1998. Note that other countries’ (Spain and Ecuador) reported landings were relatively small (<10t yr<sup>−1</sup>) and hence not visible at this scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>797410, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christine A. Ward-Paige", "Brendal Davis", "Boris Worm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Landings_trends_/797410", "title"=>"Landings trends.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:47:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201674"], "description"=>"<p>Circle sizes are proportional to effort (number of dives). Grey circles represent sites where mobulids were never reported, green circles represent sites where mobulids were present at any time and blue squares show sites where >10 individuals were observed at any point during the survey period. In (a) Hawaii SF = <1–99%, effort = 1–949 dives; b) tropical eastern Pacific: SF = <1–86%, effort = 1–152 dives, and c) tropical western Atlantic: SF <1–24%, effort = 1–2,039 dives.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sighting", "reef", "diver"], "article_id"=>797413, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christine A. Ward-Paige", "Brendal Davis", "Boris Worm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fine_scale_distribution_and_sighting_frequency_SF_from_REEF_diver_surveys_/797413", "title"=>"Fine-scale distribution and sighting frequency (SF) from REEF diver surveys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:47:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1201673"], "description"=>"<p>In general green indicates positive (large school sizes, increasing populations, ecotourism and no fishing or markets), red indicates negative (small school sizes, decreasing population sizes, no ecotourism and markets); a) school size (x = zero, red = 1–5, orange = 6–20, green = >20 individuals), b) reported change over time in school size (green = increase, red = decrease, orange = no change), c) ecotourism (green = present, red = absent, orange = combination where not all respondents reported the same observation, d) protective measures (green = present, red = absent, orange = combination), e) fishing (green = absent, red = present, orange = combination), f) markets (green = absent, red = present, orange = combination). Green crosses in b–f indicate cells with large school sizes (>20 individuals from 3a), black crosses denote cells where mobulids were not observed. Note that only some part of each cell may be observed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "emanta"], "article_id"=>797412, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Christine A. Ward-Paige", "Brendal Davis", "Boris Worm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074835.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Global_distribution_and_human_use_patterns_from_the_eManta_survey_/797412", "title"=>"Global distribution and human use patterns from the eManta survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 02:47:40"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 440, 562, 666, 765, 856, 944, 1028, 1112, 1198, 1282, 1362, 1430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Population biology", "average_usage"=>[269, 448, 558, 658, 744, 830, 914, 995, 1068, 1139, 1214, 1284, 1349]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecological metrics", "average_usage"=>[281, 448]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 441, 564, 668, 769, 859, 948, 1034, 1117, 1202, 1290, 1368, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Demography", "average_usage"=>[253, 440, 552, 650, 735, 820, 902, 976, 1042, 1112, 1192, 1271, 1337]}]}
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