Assessing Species Distribution Using Google Street View: A Pilot Study with the Pine Processionary Moth
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{"title"=>"Assessing Species Distribution Using Google Street View: A Pilot Study with the Pine Processionary Moth", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jérôme", "last_name"=>"Rousselet", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003512158"}, {"first_name"=>"Charles Edouard", "last_name"=>"Imbert", "scopus_author_id"=>"37023124500"}, {"first_name"=>"Anissa", "last_name"=>"Dekri", "scopus_author_id"=>"55656481000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacques", "last_name"=>"Garcia", "scopus_author_id"=>"16218725700"}, {"first_name"=>"Francis", "last_name"=>"Goussard", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602353393"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruno", "last_name"=>"Vincent", "scopus_author_id"=>"55875263500"}, {"first_name"=>"Olivier", "last_name"=>"Denux", "scopus_author_id"=>"55875973100"}, {"first_name"=>"Christelle", "last_name"=>"Robinet", "scopus_author_id"=>"16507987400"}, {"first_name"=>"Franck", "last_name"=>"Dorkeld", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193826842"}, {"first_name"=>"Alain", "last_name"=>"Roques", "scopus_author_id"=>"55443683500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean Pierre", "last_name"=>"Rossi", "scopus_author_id"=>"36741558600"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84885144754", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0074918", "pui"=>"369979904", "pmid"=>"24130675", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885144754", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0074918"}, "id"=>"d80c8f7e-2e54-3bd5-8877-432e758eae1e", "abstract"=>"Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google Street View could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google Street View. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google Street View were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google Street View network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/assessing-species-distribution-using-google-street-view-pilot-study-pine-processionary-moth", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Czech Republic"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230761"], "description"=>"<p>A. Field data B. Google street view derived data. The sampling units are cells of 2×2 km.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["processionary", "moth"], "article_id"=>818592, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jérôme Rousselet", "Charles-Edouard Imbert", "Anissa Dekri", "Jacques Garcia", "Francis Goussard", "Bruno Vincent", "Olivier Denux", "Christelle Robinet", "Franck Dorkeld", "Alain Roques", "Jean-Pierre Rossi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074918.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Small_scale_study_of_the_pine_processionary_moth_in_France_/818592", "title"=>"Small-scale study of the pine processionary moth in France.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:23:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230759"], "description"=>"<p>A. Winter silk nest. B. Host tree infested by several PPM colonies. C to E. Infested trees located along traffic lanes. F. Picture taken from within a car. All host trees are black pines (<i>Pinus nigra</i>) except in C. where black pines and scots pines (<i>P. sylvestris</i>) are present. All photos by J. Rousselet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["processionary", "moth", "examples", "infested", "trees", "streets"], "article_id"=>818590, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jérôme Rousselet", "Charles-Edouard Imbert", "Anissa Dekri", "Jacques Garcia", "Francis Goussard", "Bruno Vincent", "Olivier Denux", "Christelle Robinet", "Franck Dorkeld", "Alain Roques", "Jean-Pierre Rossi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074918.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pictures_showing_the_pine_processionary_moth_silk_nest_and_different_examples_of_infested_trees_located_along_streets_in_the_region_of_Orl_233_ans_France_/818590", "title"=>"Pictures showing the pine processionary moth silk nest and different examples of infested trees located along streets in the region of Orléans, France.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:23:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230756"], "description"=>"<p>A large sampling grid covering the administrative region called “Région Centre” (46 848 km<sup>2</sup>) in France was investigated. A second, smaller (121 km<sup>2</sup>), sampling grid was nested within the former.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["processionary", "moth", "sampling"], "article_id"=>818587, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jérôme Rousselet", "Charles-Edouard Imbert", "Anissa Dekri", "Jacques Garcia", "Francis Goussard", "Bruno Vincent", "Olivier Denux", "Christelle Robinet", "Franck Dorkeld", "Alain Roques", "Jean-Pierre Rossi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074918.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pine_processionary_moth_sampling_grids_/818587", "title"=>"Pine processionary moth sampling grids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:23:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230764"], "description"=>"<p>Confusion matrix for the pine processionnary moth field data (true class) and Google-derived data (hypothetized class) in the large-scale study grid (LG).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["matrix", "processionnary", "moth", "google-derived", "large-scale", "grid"], "article_id"=>818595, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jérôme Rousselet", "Charles-Edouard Imbert", "Anissa Dekri", "Jacques Garcia", "Francis Goussard", "Bruno Vincent", "Olivier Denux", "Christelle Robinet", "Franck Dorkeld", "Alain Roques", "Jean-Pierre Rossi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074918.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confusion_matrix_for_the_pine_processionnary_moth_field_data_true_class_and_Google_derived_data_hypothetized_class_in_the_large_scale_study_grid_LG_/818595", "title"=>"Confusion matrix for the pine processionnary moth field data (true class) and Google-derived data (hypothetized class) in the large-scale study grid (LG).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:23:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230763"], "description"=>"<p>Of the 121 sampled cells, 6 were removed from the analysis because no GSV data were available for comparison with field data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["matrix", "processionnary", "moth", "google-derived", "small-scale", "grid"], "article_id"=>818594, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jérôme Rousselet", "Charles-Edouard Imbert", "Anissa Dekri", "Jacques Garcia", "Francis Goussard", "Bruno Vincent", "Olivier Denux", "Christelle Robinet", "Franck Dorkeld", "Alain Roques", "Jean-Pierre Rossi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074918.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confusion_matrix_for_the_pine_processionnary_moth_field_data_true_class_and_Google_derived_data_hypothetized_class_in_the_small_scale_study_grid_SG_/818594", "title"=>"Confusion matrix for the pine processionnary moth field data (true class) and Google-derived data (hypothetized class) in the small-scale study grid (SG).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:23:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230765"], "description"=>"<div><p>Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google street view could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) <i>Thaumetopoea pityocampa</i> because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google street view. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google street view were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google street view network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["google", "processionary"], "article_id"=>818596, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jérôme Rousselet", "Charles-Edouard Imbert", "Anissa Dekri", "Jacques Garcia", "Francis Goussard", "Bruno Vincent", "Olivier Denux", "Christelle Robinet", "Franck Dorkeld", "Alain Roques", "Jean-Pierre Rossi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074918", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Assessing_Species_Distribution_Using_Google_Street_View_A_Pilot_Study_with_the_Pine_Processionary_Moth_/818596", "title"=>"Assessing Species Distribution Using Google Street View: A Pilot Study with the Pine Processionary Moth", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:23:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230762"], "description"=>"<p>Relationships between the Google street view coverage (%) and the counts of true and false positives, and true and false negatives in the SG.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["google", "counts", "negatives"], "article_id"=>818593, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jérôme Rousselet", "Charles-Edouard Imbert", "Anissa Dekri", "Jacques Garcia", "Francis Goussard", "Bruno Vincent", "Olivier Denux", "Christelle Robinet", "Franck Dorkeld", "Alain Roques", "Jean-Pierre Rossi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074918.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_the_Google_street_view_coverage_and_the_counts_of_true_and_false_positives_and_true_and_false_negatives_in_the_SG_/818593", "title"=>"Relationships between the Google street view coverage (%) and the counts of true and false positives, and true and false negatives in the SG.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:23:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230760"], "description"=>"<p>A. Field data B. Google street view derived data. The sampling units are cells of 16×16 km.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["processionnary", "moth"], "article_id"=>818591, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jérôme Rousselet", "Charles-Edouard Imbert", "Anissa Dekri", "Jacques Garcia", "Francis Goussard", "Bruno Vincent", "Olivier Denux", "Christelle Robinet", "Franck Dorkeld", "Alain Roques", "Jean-Pierre Rossi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074918.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Large_scale_study_of_the_pine_processionnary_moth_in_France_/818591", "title"=>"Large-scale study of the pine processionnary moth in France.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:23:27"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[275, 472, 605, 720, 822, 921, 1013, 1106, 1200, 1289, 1378, 1459, 1531]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Information technology", "average_usage"=>[265, 446, 547, 656, 751, 809, 898, 978, 1077, 1216, 1295, 1357, 1403, 1469]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Species colonization", "average_usage"=>[251, 396, 508, 594, 692, 774, 847, 918, 1000, 1061, 1113, 1187, 1246]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[259, 431, 541, 639, 727, 816, 898, 980, 1061, 1136, 1214, 1294, 1356]}]}
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