What Lies Beneath: Sub-Articular Long Bone Shape Scaling in Eutherian Mammals and Saurischian Dinosaurs Suggests Different Locomotor Adaptations for Gigantism
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{"title"=>"What Lies Beneath: Sub-Articular Long Bone Shape Scaling in Eutherian Mammals and Saurischian Dinosaurs Suggests Different Locomotor Adaptations for Gigantism", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matthew F.", "last_name"=>"Bonnan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505939815"}, {"first_name"=>"D. Ray", "last_name"=>"Wilhite", "scopus_author_id"=>"28667505700"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon L.", "last_name"=>"Masters", "scopus_author_id"=>"24468289200"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam M.", "last_name"=>"Yates", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202620639"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine K.", "last_name"=>"Gardner", "scopus_author_id"=>"55900652200"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam", "last_name"=>"Aguiar", "scopus_author_id"=>"55874999500"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84885136628", "pmid"=>"24130690", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885136628", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369979892", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0075216"}, "id"=>"fdae04c1-488b-3d1a-aac3-c71d80af64d5", "abstract"=>"Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lies-beneath-subarticular-long-bone-shape-scaling-eutherian-mammals-saurischian-dinosaurs-suggests-d", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230438"], "description"=>"<p>Our data suggest that as mammals increase in size, the joint region narrows and the articular cartilage becomes relatively thinner, producing convex and well-developed subchondral bone surfaces. For archosaurs, our data suggest that with increasing size the joint region expands while the articular cartilage remains thick, producing relatively flat and less convex subchondral bone surfaces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["surfaces", "articular", "cartilage", "thickness", "mammals"], "article_id"=>818317, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_changing_joint_surfaces_and_articular_cartilage_thickness_with_increasing_size_in_mammals_and_archosaurs_/818317", "title"=>"Schematic representation of changing joint surfaces and articular cartilage thickness with increasing size in mammals and archosaurs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230434"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum humerus shape change in the sample is shown on the Y-axis (PRIN 1), whereas humerus shape changes associated with size are shown on the X-axis. Changes in humerus shape along the PRIN 1 axis and X-axis are similar in that larger taxa have more proximally and distally expanded ends. In particular, the sub-articular region expands tremendously whereas its overall shape remains gently convex. Note also that the deltopectoral crest (landmarks 2–4) remains or becomes more medially-deflected as size increases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["humerus", "saurischian", "dinosaurs"], "article_id"=>818313, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_humerus_shape_in_saurischian_dinosaurs_and_alligators_/818313", "title"=>"Changes humerus shape in saurischian dinosaurs and alligators.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230432"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum femur shape change in the sample is shown on the Y-axis (PRIN 1), whereas femur shape changes associated with size are shown on the X-axis. As with the humerus, monotreme specimens plot among the most robust femora on the PRIN 1 axis, but aardvarks, rhinos, and one <i>Paraceratherium</i> specimen also plot in robust morphospace. Once again, the sub-articular bone region narrows significantly with increasing size and that the shapes of these regions become more defined, convex, and/or distinct. Notice also that the femoral head becomes more distinct and medially-oriented with increasing size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur"], "article_id"=>818311, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_femur_shape_in_mammals_/818311", "title"=>"Changes in femur shape in mammals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230426"], "description"=>"<p>All drawings are not to scale and were enlarged or reduced to facilitate comparisons. For the humerus, landmarks 1 and 2 encompass the region of the humeral head. Landmarks 2, 3, and 4 encompass the extent of the deltopectoral crest. Landmarks 4 and 7 encompass the narrowest point of the midshaft. Landmarks 5 and 6 denote the lateral and medial epicondyles, respectively. For the femur, landmarks 1 and 2 encompass the region of the femoral head. Landmarks 3 and 6 encompass the narrowest point of the midshaft. Landmarks 4 and 5 denote the the lateral and medial epicondyles. Regions of sub-articular bone are indicated in dark gray and the digitized outlines that were subsequently converted into chains of 10 evenly-spaced semi-landmarks are colored red. The exemplar taxa represented as bones, left to right, are: <i>Alligator</i>, <i>Torneria</i> (“<i>Barosaurus</i>”), and <i>Allosaurus</i>. Given that birds were included in the Archosauria sample, the fourth trochanter (4 Tr) was not digitized. The TPS reference forms which describe the shape of the bones mathematically is shown at right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["digitized", "2-d", "thin-plate", "splines", "geometric", "morphmetric"], "article_id"=>818307, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Landmarks_digitized_for_2_D_thin_plate_splines_TPS_geometric_morphmetric_GM_analyses_8211_Archosaurs_/818307", "title"=>"Landmarks digitized for 2-D thin-plate splines (TPS) geometric morphmetric (GM) analyses – Archosaurs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230425"], "description"=>"<p>All drawings are not to scale and were enlarged or reduced to facilitate comparisons. For the humerus, landmarks 1 and 2 encompass the region between the greater tubercle and the medial extent of the humeral head. Landmarks 2, 3, and 4 encompass the extent of the deltopectoral crest. Landmarks 4 and 7 encompass the narrowest point of the midshaft. Landmarks 5 and 6 denote the lateral and medial epicondyles, respectively. For the femur, landmarks 1 and 2 encompass the region between the greater trochanter and the medial extent of the proximal end of the femur. Landmarks 3 and 6 encompass the narrowest point of the midshaft. Landmarks 4 and 5 denote the the lateral and medial epicondyles. Regions of sub-articular bone are indicated in dark gray and the digitized outlines that were subsequently converted into chains of 10 evenly-spaced semi-landmarks are colored red. The exemplar taxa represented as bones, left to right, are: <i>Ornithorhynchus</i>, <i>Mammut</i>, and <i>Paraceratherium</i>. The TPS reference forms which describe the shape of the bones mathematically is shown at right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["digitized", "2-d", "thin-plate", "splines", "geometric", "morphometrics"], "article_id"=>818306, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>302, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Landmarks_digitized_for_2_D_thin_plate_splines_TPS_geometric_morphometrics_GM_analyses_8211_Mammals_/818306", "title"=>"Landmarks digitized for 2-D thin-plate splines (TPS) geometric morphometrics (GM) analyses – Mammals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230440"], "description"=>"<p>In all cases, there are significant shape differences among the taxa.</p>**<p>Eutheria was divided into several clades: Afrotheria, Perissodactyla (rhinos and tapirs only), and Felidae.</p>*<p>Saurischia was divided into Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda (Aves inclusive).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["warp", "scores", "collectively", "humerus", "femur"], "article_id"=>818319, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MANOVA_of_partial_warp_scores_which_collectively_describe_the_shape_of_the_humerus_and_femur_in_the_samples_/818319", "title"=>"MANOVA of partial warp scores which collectively describe the shape of the humerus and femur in the samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230441"], "description"=>"<p>Significant differences among the taxa sampled (p<0.05) are indicated under the Mann-Whitney U column. Posture categories were: 1) non-parasagittal; 2) bipedal, parasagittal; and 3) obligate quadrupedal, parasagittal.</p>*<p>Saurischia was divided into Sauropoda (parasagittal obligate quadrupeds) and parasagittal bipeds (Theropoda (Aves inclusive)+Basal Sauropodomorpha).</p>**<p>Eutheria was treated as one postural category: parasagittal obligate quadrupeds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pair-wise", "mann-whitney", "non-parametric", "differences", "postures", "sampled", "taxa", "median", "prin"], "article_id"=>818320, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallace_and_pair_wise_Mann_Whitney_U_non_parametric_tests_for_significant_differences_in_maximum_shape_change_PRIN_1_among_the_postures_of_the_sampled_taxa_based_on_the_median_score_of_PRIN_1_/818320", "title"=>"Kruskal-Wallace and pair-wise Mann-Whitney U non-parametric tests for significant differences in maximum shape change (PRIN 1) among the postures of the sampled taxa based on the median score of PRIN 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230439"], "description"=>"<p>Multiple r<sup>2</sup> (Mult-r<sup>2</sup>) values indicate how well the shape changes correlate with size. R<sup>2</sup> a coefficient of determination that is expressed as a percentage of shape change explained by length.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["multivariate", "regression", "warps", "femur"], "article_id"=>818318, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multiple_and_multivariate_regression_of_partial_warps_on_size_humerus_or_femur_maximum_length_/818318", "title"=>"Multiple and multivariate regression of partial warps on size (humerus or femur maximum length).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230436"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum femur shape change in the sample is shown on the Y-axis (PRIN 1), whereas femur shape changes associated with size are shown on the X-axis. As with the humerus, changes in femur shape along the PRIN 1 axis and X-axis are similar in that larger taxa have more proximally and distally expanded ends. Overall, the sub-articular region expands tremendously whereas its overall shape remains gently convex, although the distal condyles become somewhat more pronounced.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "saurischian", "dinosaurs"], "article_id"=>818315, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_femur_shape_saurischian_dinosaurs_and_alligators_/818315", "title"=>"Changes in femur shape saurischian dinosaurs and alligators.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230444", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230445"], "description"=>"<div><p>Eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs both evolved lineages of huge terrestrial herbivores. Although significantly more saurischian dinosaurs were giants than eutherians, the long bones of both taxa scale similarly and suggest that locomotion was dynamically similar. However, articular cartilage is thin in eutherian mammals but thick in saurischian dinosaurs, differences that could have contributed to, or limited, how frequently gigantism evolved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sub-articular bone, which supports the articular cartilage, changes shape in different ways between terrestrial mammals and dinosaurs with increasing size. Our sample consisted of giant mammal and reptile taxa (i.e., elephants, rhinos, sauropods) plus erect and non-erect outgroups with thin and thick articular cartilage. Our results show that eutherian mammal sub-articular shape becomes narrow with well-defined surface features as size increases. In contrast, this region in saurischian dinosaurs expands and remains gently convex with increasing size. Similar trends were observed in non-erect outgroup taxa (monotremes, alligators), showing that the trends we report are posture-independent. These differences support our hypothesis that sub-articular shape scales differently between eutherian mammals and saurischian dinosaurs. Our results show that articular cartilage thickness and sub-articular shape are correlated. In mammals, joints become ever more congruent and thinner with increasing size, whereas archosaur joints remained both congruent and thick, especially in sauropods. We suggest that gigantism occurs less frequently in mammals, in part, because joints composed of thin articular cartilage can only become so congruent before stress cannot be effectively alleviated. In contrast, frequent gigantism in saurischian dinosaurs may be explained, in part, by joints with thick articular cartilage that can deform across large areas with increasing load.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lies", "sub-articular", "scaling", "eutherian", "mammals", "saurischian", "dinosaurs", "suggests", "locomotor", "adaptations"], "article_id"=>818323, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_What_Lies_Beneath_Sub_Articular_Long_Bone_Shape_Scaling_in_Eutherian_Mammals_and_Saurischian_Dinosaurs_Suggests_Different_Locomotor_Adaptations_for_Gigantism_/818323", "title"=>"What Lies Beneath: Sub-Articular Long Bone Shape Scaling in Eutherian Mammals and Saurischian Dinosaurs Suggests Different Locomotor Adaptations for Gigantism", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230427"], "description"=>"<p>Maximum humerus shape change in the sample is shown on the Y-axis (PRIN 1), whereas humerus shape changes associated with size are shown on the X-axis. Note that on the PRIN 1 axis, monotreme taxa plot separately from other mammals in the sample, and show a much more expanded and robust humerus. On the X-axis, the sub-articular bone region narrows significantly with increasing size, and the shapes of these regions become more convex and/or distinct.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["humerus"], "article_id"=>818308, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_humerus_shape_in_mammals_/818308", "title"=>"Changes in humerus shape in mammals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1230443"], "description"=>"<p>Percentages listed with each element show how much shape variation in the sample PRIN 1 accounts for. Significant differences among the taxa sampled (p<0.05) are indicated under the Mann-Whitney U column.</p>*<p>Saurischia was divided into Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda (Aves inclusive).</p>**<p>Eutheria was divided into several clades: Afrotheria, Perissodactyla (rhinos and tapirs only), and Felidae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pair-wise", "mann-whitney", "non-parametric", "differences", "sampled", "taxa", "median", "prin"], "article_id"=>818322, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Bonnan", "D. Ray Wilhite", "Simon L. Masters", "Adam M. Yates", "Christine K. Gardner", "Adam Aguiar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075216.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallace_and_pair_wise_Mann_Whitney_U_non_parametric_tests_for_significant_differences_in_maximum_shape_change_PRIN_1_among_the_sampled_taxa_based_on_the_median_score_of_PRIN_1_/818322", "title"=>"Kruskal-Wallace and pair-wise Mann-Whitney U non-parametric tests for significant differences in maximum shape change (PRIN 1) among the sampled taxa based on the median score of PRIN 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-09 03:06:25"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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