Avian Influenza Infection Alters Fecal Odor in Mallards
Publication Date
October 16, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Bruce A. Kimball, Kunio Yamazaki, Dennis Kohler, Richard A. Bowen, et al
Volume
8
Issue
10
Pages
e75411
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075411
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0075411
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24146753
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3797728
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24146753
Web of Science
000326019400006
Scopus
84885787338
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/avian-influenza-infection-alters-fecal-odor-mallards
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Avian Influenza Infection Alters Fecal Odor in Mallards", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bruce A.", "last_name"=>"Kimball", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102533256"}, {"first_name"=>"Kunio", "last_name"=>"Yamazaki", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402217727"}, {"first_name"=>"Dennis", "last_name"=>"Kohler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103211769"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard A.", "last_name"=>"Bowen", "scopus_author_id"=>"24598913600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jack P.", "last_name"=>"Muth", "scopus_author_id"=>"54080081800"}, {"first_name"=>"Maryanne", "last_name"=>"Opiekun", "scopus_author_id"=>"25632958600"}, {"first_name"=>"Gary K.", "last_name"=>"Beauchamp", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102529648"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885787338", "sgr"=>"84885787338", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0075411", "pmid"=>"24146753", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"370046354"}, "id"=>"e07d1788-53e9-3d03-8754-35429f1562ed", "abstract"=>"Changes in body odor are known to be a consequence of many diseases. Much of the published work on disease-related and body odor changes has involved parasites and certain cancers. Much less studied have been viral diseases, possibly due to an absence of good animal model systems. Here we studied possible alteration of fecal odors in animals infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV). In a behavioral study, inbred C57BL/6 mice were trained in a standard Y-maze to discriminate odors emanating from feces collected from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus compared to fecal odors from non-infected controls. Mice could discriminate odors from non-infected compared to infected individual ducks on the basis of fecal odors when feces from post-infection periods were paired with feces from pre-infection periods. Prompted by this indication of odor change, fecal samples were subjected to dynamic headspace and solvent extraction analyses employing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify chemical markers indicative of AIV infection. Chemical analyses indicated that AIV infection was associated with a marked increase of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone) in feces. These experiments demonstrate that information regarding viral infection exists via volatile metabolites present in feces. Further, they suggest that odor changes following virus infection could play a role in regulating behavior of conspecifics exposed to infected individuals.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/avian-influenza-infection-alters-fecal-odor-mallards", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84885787338"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84885787338?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84885787338&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84885787338&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84885787338", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84885787338", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84885787338", "dc:title"=>"Avian Influenza Infection Alters Fecal Odor in Mallards", "dc:creator"=>"Kimball B.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"10", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-10-16", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"16 October 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0075411", "citedby-count"=>"8", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center", "affiliation-city"=>"Fort Collins", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24146753", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e75411", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0075411", "share_count"=>1, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>1}

Journal Comments | Further Information

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"128", "xml_views"=>"15", "html_views"=>"1010"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"137"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"119"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"121"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"94"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"77"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1240076"], "description"=>"<p>In all cases, mice were trained to select the maze arm associated with the odor of feces collected after experimental infection with avian influenza.</p>*<p>Binomial test probability with null hypothesis % Correct = 50%.</p>1<p>Indicates rate of selection of post-sham infection feces sample.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unrewarded", "generalization", "trials", "within-subjects", "comparisons", "feces", "aiv"], "article_id"=>825040, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bruce A. Kimball", "Kunio Yamazaki", "Dennis Kohler", "Richard A. Bowen", "Jack P. Muth", "Maryanne Opiekun", "Gary K. Beauchamp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075411.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bioassay_results_of_unrewarded_generalization_trials_pair_wise_within_subjects_comparisons_of_feces_collected_before_and_after_experimental_AIV_infection_/825040", "title"=>"Bioassay results of unrewarded generalization trials (pair-wise, within-subjects comparisons of feces collected before and after experimental AIV infection).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:57:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1240073"], "description"=>"<p>In all cases, mice were trained to select the maze arm associated with the odor of feces collected after experimental AIV infection. “Pre” indicates feces collected prior to experimental infection; “Post” indicates collection after infection. Ducks 5 and 12 were experimentally infected with avian influenza. Ducks 1 and 2 received a sham treatment. Responses were subjected to tests of binomial proportions equal to 50%.</p>1<p>Indicates rate of selection of 12 - Pre sample.</p>2<p>Indicates rate of selection of 5 - Post sample.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unrewarded", "generalization", "trials", "between-subjects", "comparisons"], "article_id"=>825037, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bruce A. Kimball", "Kunio Yamazaki", "Dennis Kohler", "Richard A. Bowen", "Jack P. Muth", "Maryanne Opiekun", "Gary K. Beauchamp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075411.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bioassay_results_of_unrewarded_generalization_trials_pair_wise_between_subjects_comparisons_of_feces_/825037", "title"=>"Bioassay results of unrewarded generalization trials (pair-wise, between-subjects comparisons of feces).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:57:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1240074"], "description"=>"<p>Responses of individual compounds are normalized for sample mass. Peak ratio equals 1-octen-3-ol response divided by acetoin response and is thus independent of sample mass. P-values correspond to differences of non-infected and infected ducks for the three different responses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["responses", "acetoin", "1-octen-3-ol", "ethanol", "extracts"], "article_id"=>825038, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bruce A. Kimball", "Kunio Yamazaki", "Dennis Kohler", "Richard A. Bowen", "Jack P. Muth", "Maryanne Opiekun", "Gary K. Beauchamp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075411.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Peak_area_responses_10_5_of_acetoin_and_1_octen_3_ol_determined_in_ethanol_extracts_of_duck_feces_/825038", "title"=>"Peak area responses (×10<sup>5</sup>) of acetoin and 1-octen-3-ol determined in ethanol extracts of duck feces.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:57:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1240077"], "description"=>"<p>Donor IDs, treatments, and use of feces in behavioral assays.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["feces"], "article_id"=>825041, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bruce A. Kimball", "Kunio Yamazaki", "Dennis Kohler", "Richard A. Bowen", "Jack P. Muth", "Maryanne Opiekun", "Gary K. Beauchamp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075411.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Donor_IDs_treatments_and_use_of_feces_in_behavioral_assays_/825041", "title"=>"Donor IDs, treatments, and use of feces in behavioral assays.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:57:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1240075"], "description"=>"<p>Mice were rewarded for selection of the maze arm associated with feces collected after experimental AIV infection (post-treatment collections).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>825039, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Bruce A. Kimball", "Kunio Yamazaki", "Dennis Kohler", "Richard A. Bowen", "Jack P. Muth", "Maryanne Opiekun", "Gary K. Beauchamp"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075411.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Training_session_stimuli_/825039", "title"=>"Training session stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:57:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[254, 440, 558, 675, 785, 883, 972, 1061, 1154, 1248, 1336, 1414, 1489]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Parasitic diseases", "average_usage"=>[320, 619, 774, 903, 1012, 1118, 1224, 1333, 1442, 1518, 1600, 1702, 1779]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[267, 466, 592, 709, 806, 901, 989, 1075, 1162, 1254, 1342, 1424, 1486]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts