Bions: A Family of Biomimetic Mineralo-Organic Complexes Derived from Biological Fluids
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{"title"=>"Bions: A Family of Biomimetic Mineralo-Organic Complexes Derived from Biological Fluids", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Cheng Yeu", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"16231733000"}, {"first_name"=>"Lena", "last_name"=>"Young", "scopus_author_id"=>"26424900200"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Young", "scopus_author_id"=>"55204443100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jan", "last_name"=>"Martel", "scopus_author_id"=>"24335791200"}, {"first_name"=>"John D.", "last_name"=>"Young", "scopus_author_id"=>"7408526599"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"369883014", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0075501", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84884571051", "pmid"=>"24086546", "sgr"=>"84884571051"}, "id"=>"2c9b987d-d243-30d1-a29a-d2f8ec6cdc36", "abstract"=>"Mineralo-organic nanoparticles form spontaneously in human body fluids when the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions exceed saturation. We have shown previously that these mineralo-organic nanoparticles possess biomimetic properties and can reproduce the whole phenomenology of the so-called nanobacteria-mineralized entities initially described as the smallest microorganisms on earth. Here, we examine the possibility that various charged elements and ions may form mineral nanoparticles with similar properties in biological fluids. Remarkably, all the elements tested, including sodium, magnesium, aluminum, calcium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, strontium, and barium form mineralo-organic particles with bacteria-like morphologies and other complex shapes following precipitation with phosphate in body fluids. Upon formation, these mineralo-organic particles, which we term bions, invariably accumulate carbonate apatite during incubation in biological fluids; yet, the particles also incorporate additional elements and thus reflect the ionic milieu in which they form. Bions initially harbor an amorphous mineral phase that gradually converts to crystals in culture. Our results show that serum produces a dual inhibition-seeding effect on bion formation. Using a comprehensive proteomic analysis, we identify a wide range of proteins that bind to these mineral particles during incubation in medium containing serum. The two main binding proteins identified, albumin and fetuin-A, act as both inhibitors and seeders of bions in culture. Notably, bions possess several biomimetic properties, including the possibility to increase in size and number and to be sub-cultured in fresh culture medium. Based on these results, we propose that bions represent biological, mineralo-organic particles that may form in the body under both physiological and pathological homeostasis conditions. These mineralo-organic particles may be part of a physiological cycle that regulates the function, transport and disposal of elements and minerals in the human body.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bions-family-biomimetic-mineraloorganic-complexes-derived-biological-fluids", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215841"], "description"=>"<p>The mineral particles shown here, which we refer to as bions, were prepared by adding 1<sub>2</sub> (A), NaCl (B), MgCl<sub>2</sub> (C), AlCl<sub>3</sub> (D), CoCl<sub>2</sub> (E), NiCl<sub>2</sub> (F), CuCl<sub>2</sub> (G), ZnCl<sub>2</sub> (H) or SrCl<sub>2</sub> (I) in DMEM containing 10% FBS, followed by addition of 1 mM Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> to induce mineral precipitation. After incubation overnight in cell culture conditions, bions were collected by centrifugation, washed with HEPES buffer and prepared for SEM as described in <i>Materials and Methods</i>. Bions formed round, bacteria-like structures at various degrees of aggregation and conversion to crystalline films.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["particles", "biomimetic", "morphologies"], "article_id"=>808226, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Formation_of_mineral_particles_with_biomimetic_morphologies_in_biological_fluids_/808226", "title"=>"Formation of mineral particles with biomimetic morphologies in biological fluids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215847"], "description"=>"<p>Bions were prepared by adding 1(A), AlCl<sub>3</sub> (B)<sub>,</sub> BaCl<sub>2</sub> (C, E, and F), or MnCl<sub>2</sub> (D) in DMEM containing 10% FBS (A, C, and D) or 10% HS (B, E, and F), followed by addition of 1 mM Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> to induce mineral precipitation. In (A), 1 mM Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> was also added before addition of Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub>. Bions were incubated in cell culture conditions overnight, collected by centrifugation, washed with HEPES buffer, and prepared for SEM. Bions formed various morphologies, including shapes similar to bacillus bacteria (A), mushrooms (B), and flowers (C), as well as round, cell-like formations apparently formed of smaller, round NPs (D; inset, NPs denoted by white arrows). Complex structures similar to dumbbells and muscle fibers (E and F) were also observed in some bion samples. (G) Addition of 1 mM CoCl<sub>2</sub> and Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> each in water containing 10% FBS produced mineral NPs that quickly converted into crystalline biofilm-like structures. (H) When MnCl<sub>2</sub> and Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> were added at 1 mM each in DMEM alone without a body fluid, a mineral precipitate showing a flaky appearance and sharp edges was observed. (I) Addition of 1 mM FeCl<sub>2</sub> and Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> each in water formed round Fe-bions of small sizes. The samples shown in (G–I) were incubated overnight before preparation for SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biomimetic", "morphologies", "structures"], "article_id"=>808232, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bions_form_various_biomimetic_morphologies_and_complex_structures_in_biological_fluids_/808232", "title"=>"Bions form various biomimetic morphologies and complex structures in biological fluids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215849"], "description"=>"<p>Bions were prepared by adding 1<sub>2</sub>, MgCl<sub>2</sub>, MnCl<sub>2</sub>, SrCl<sub>2</sub> or BaCl<sub>2</sub> in DMEM containing 10% HS (A-E), saliva (F-J), or urine (K-O), followed by addition of 1 mM Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub>. After incubation overnight in cell culture conditions, bions were collected by centrifugation, washed with HEPES buffer, and prepared for SEM. Bions produced in various body fluids displayed bacteria-like morphologies at different stages of aggregation and conversion to biofilm-like structures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>808234, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bions_form_in_various_human_body_fluids_/808234", "title"=>"Bions form in various human body fluids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215851"], "description"=>"<p>Bions were prepared by adding 1<sub>2</sub> (A), MgCl<sub>2</sub> (B), MnCl<sub>2</sub> (C), SrCl<sub>2</sub> (D) or BaCl<sub>2</sub> (E) in DMEM containing 10% FBS, prior to addition of 1 mM Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub>. The particles were incubated overnight in cell culture conditions, collected by centrifugation, and washed with HEPES buffer. Thin-sections were observed under TEM without staining. Bions consisted of round bacteria-like formations with a wall and a central cavity. Solid, electron-dense, mineral particles were also noted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tem", "observations", "bions", "derived"], "article_id"=>808236, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Thin_section_TEM_observations_of_bions_derived_from_biological_fluids_/808236", "title"=>"Thin-section TEM observations of bions derived from biological fluids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215852"], "description"=>"<p>(A) EDX spectra of bions prepared as in Fig. 4 showed peaks of carbon, calcium, oxygen, and phosphorus, consistent with the presence of carbonate apatite. Peaks corresponding to the charged cations added were also noted (i.e., Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Mn<sup>2+</sup>, Sr<sup>2+</sup>, or Ba<sup>2+</sup>). The peaks present in every sample were labeled with black geometrical figures on top for clarity. The oxygen peak, which superimposed with the Mn peak in the spectrum of Mn-bions, was also found in all samples, and was labeled with an inverted white triangle. The following calcium:phosphorus atomic ratios were observed: Ca-bions, 1.54; Mg-bions, 0.76; Mn-bions, 0.11; Sr-bions, 0.61; Ba-bions, 0.37. The ratios of added cations to phosphorus were as follows: Mg:P, 0.63; Mn:P, 1.05; Sr:P, 0.41; Ba:P, 0.51. (B) FTIR analysis of bions prepared as in Fig. 4 revealed peaks of phosphate (575 cm<sup>−1</sup>, 605 cm<sup>−1</sup>, 960 cm<sup>−1</sup>, and 1,000−1,150 cm<sup>−1</sup>) and carbonate (875 cm<sup>−1</sup> and 1,400−1,430 cm<sup>−1</sup>). Low peaks corresponding to amide I/H<sub>2</sub>O, amide II, and amide III at 1,660 cm<sup>−1</sup>, 1,550 cm<sup>−1</sup>, and 1,250 cm<sup>−1</sup>, respectively, were also observed in some samples due to the presence of water and serum proteins. Representative spectra of CaCO<sub>3</sub>, Ca<sub>3</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> and HAP controls were included for comparison.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["compositions", "bions", "formed"], "article_id"=>808237, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Elemental_and_chemical_compositions_of_bions_formed_in_biological_fluids_/808237", "title"=>"Elemental and chemical compositions of bions formed in biological fluids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215853"], "description"=>"<p>Bions prepared as in Fig. 4 were incubated for either 1 day (A) or 1 week (B) in cell culture conditions, prior to preparation for XRD analysis. In (A), low, broad peaks corresponding to Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub> and Ca<sub>3</sub>Mg<sub>3</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>4</sub> were noted for Ca-bions and Mg-bions, respectively, whereas the other bion samples produced amorphous spectra. (B) One-week old bions produced sharp peaks corresponding to Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub> for Ca-bions, Ca<sub>3</sub>Mg<sub>3</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>4</sub> for Mg-bions, Mn<sub>3</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> for Mn-bions, Ca<sub>4</sub>Sr<sub>6</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub> for Sr-bions, and Ca<sub>4</sub>Ba<sub>2</sub>(HPO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>(H<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub> for Ba-bions. These results suggest that bions initially form an amorphous mineral phase that gradually converts to crystalline mineral during incubation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bions"], "article_id"=>808238, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amorphous_to_crystalline_mineral_conversion_of_bions_in_biological_fluids_/808238", "title"=>"Amorphous-to-crystalline mineral conversion of bions in biological fluids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215856"], "description"=>"<p>Bions were prepared in 24-well plates by adding 10 mM CaCl<sub>2</sub>, MgCl<sub>2</sub>, MnCl<sub>2</sub>, SrCl<sub>2</sub> or BaCl<sub>2</sub> in DMEM containing 0.1–10% FBS, followed by addition of 10 mM Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> to induce mineral precipitation. Each bion preparation consisted of a total of 1 ml. The plates were incubated in cell culture conditions for one day (A) or two weeks (B), prior to photography and spectrophotometry measurements at a wavelength of 650 nm (A<sub>650</sub>). While FBS inhibited bion formation in a dose-dependent manner at day 1, the inhibition was gradually overcome with time as seen by the additional bion precipitation observed after 2 weeks (compare “Day 1” with “2 Weeks”). *<i>P</i> < 0.05, versus well 1 of the same row; **<i>P</i> < 0.05, versus the same well at Day 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["produces", "dual", "inhibition-seeding", "bion"], "article_id"=>808241, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Serum_produces_a_dual_inhibition_seeding_effect_on_bion_formation_/808241", "title"=>"Serum produces a dual inhibition-seeding effect on bion formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215857"], "description"=>"<p>Bions were prepared by adding 10<sub>2</sub>, MnCl<sub>2</sub>, SrCl<sub>2</sub> or BaCl<sub>2</sub> in DMEM containing 5% FBS, followed by addition of 10 mM Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> to induce bion formation. A final volume of 1 ml was used. Mg-bions were prepared by adding 20 mM MgCl<sub>2</sub> due to the lower amount of precipitation observed for this cation. The particles were incubated in cell culture conditions for two days. Following incubation, the particles were washed and treated with 0.1 mM EDTA. The protein samples were prepared for SDS-PAGE under denaturing and reducing conditions (see <i>Materials and Methods</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["profiles", "bions", "derived"], "article_id"=>808242, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protein_profiles_of_bions_derived_from_serum_/808242", "title"=>"Protein profiles of bions derived from serum.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215859"], "description"=>"<p>Bions were prepared by adding 3<sub>2</sub> (A) or BaCl<sub>2</sub> (B) in DMEM containing albumin and/or fetuin-A, followed by addition of 3 mM Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> to induce bion formation. When used alone, albumin was added at the concentrations shown on top whereas fetuin-A was used at the concentrations shown at the bottom. When albumin and fetuin-A were added together, both proteins were used at the concentrations written at the bottom. Bion formation was evaluated by monitoring absorbance at a wavelength of 650 nm (A<sub>650</sub>). Compared to albumin, fetuin-A showed a more potent inhibitory effect on the formation of both types of bions. A slight additive inhibitory effect was noted when both albumin and fetuin-A were added together.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetuin-a", "inhibit", "bion"], "article_id"=>808244, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Albumin_and_fetuin_A_inhibit_bion_formation_/808244", "title"=>"Albumin and fetuin-A inhibit bion formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215860"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Bions increase in size during incubation. Bions were prepared by adding 1 mM CaCl<sub>2</sub>, 10 mM MgCl<sub>2</sub>, 1 mM MnCl<sub>2</sub>, 5 mM SrCl<sub>2</sub> or 3 mM BaCl<sub>2</sub> in DMEM containing 5% FBS, followed by addition of Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> at the same concentration to induce precipitation. Particle size was determined by DLS during a 2-week incubation period. (B) Bions increase in number in culture. Bions were prepared and incubated as described in (A) and particle number was determined by DLS. (C) Bions are sub-culturable in fresh medium. Bions were subcultured by diluting a solution containing abundant, pre-formed bions (A<sub>650</sub> of 0.7) in fresh DMEM containing 10% FBS at a ratio of 1∶10 using a final volume of 15 ml. Bions sub-cultures were incubated in cell culture conditions for 2 weeks and the amount of bions was monitored by light absorbance. (D) EDX analysis of bions after sub-culture and incubation for 2 weeks. Bions were retrieved by centrifugation, followed by washing steps and preparation for EDX analysis. See the text for more details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sub-culture"], "article_id"=>808245, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Increase_in_size_and_number_and_sub_culture_of_bions_/808245", "title"=>"Increase in size and number, and sub-culture of bions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215861"], "description"=>"<p>Bions were prepared by adding CaCl<sub>2</sub>, MnCl<sub>2</sub>, SrCl<sub>2</sub>, or BaCl<sub>2</sub> at a final concentration of 10 mM, or MgCl<sub>2</sub> at 20 mM in DMEM containing 5% FBS. Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> at 10 mM was then added (in a final volume of 1 ml). Following incubation in cell culture conditions overnight, bions were washed and then treated with 0.1 mM EDTA to help release the bound proteins. Proteomic analysis was performed using LC-MS/MS as described in <i>Materials and Methods</i>. Spectral counting values were normalized by multiplying each number of spectra by the average of total spectra count for the five samples shown, and then dividing by the sum of spectra for the corresponding sample. MW, molecular weight in kDa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proteins", "ranked", "spectral"], "article_id"=>808246, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Cheng-Yeu Wu", "Lena Young", "David Young", "Jan Martel", "John D. Young"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075501.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bion_binding_proteins_identified_by_LC_MS_MS_and_ranked_by_spectral_counting_/808246", "title"=>"Bion-binding proteins identified by LC-MS/MS and ranked by spectral counting.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 02:02:22"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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