Small-Aperture Monovision and the Pulfrich Experience: Absence of Neural Adaptation Effects
Publication Date
October 14, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Sotiris Plainis, Dionysia Petratou, Trisevgeni Giannakopoulou, Hema Radhakrishnan, et al
Volume
8
Issue
10
Pages
e75987
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0075987
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24155881
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3796532
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24155881
Web of Science
000325887300015
Scopus
84885403585
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/smallaperture-monovision-pulfrich-experience-absence-neural-adaptation-effects
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Small-Aperture Monovision and the Pulfrich Experience: Absence of Neural Adaptation Effects", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sotiris", "last_name"=>"Plainis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602548032"}, {"first_name"=>"Dionysia", "last_name"=>"Petratou", "scopus_author_id"=>"37561752700"}, {"first_name"=>"Trisevgeni", "last_name"=>"Giannakopoulou", "scopus_author_id"=>"36709583200"}, {"first_name"=>"Hema", "last_name"=>"Radhakrishnan", "scopus_author_id"=>"16246184700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ioannis G.", "last_name"=>"Pallikaris", "scopus_author_id"=>"35548726400"}, {"first_name"=>"W. Neil", "last_name"=>"Charman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102355014"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885403585", "sgr"=>"84885403585", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0075987", "pmid"=>"24155881", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"370004868"}, "id"=>"bee70034-d4f4-3d92-8d90-099461dc6cf3", "abstract"=>"PURPOSE: To explore whether adaptation reduces the interocular visual latency differences and the induced Pulfrich effect caused by the anisocoria implicit in small-aperture monovision.\\n\\nMETHODS: Anisocoric vision was simulated in two adults by wearing in the non-dominant eye for 7 successive days, while awake, an opaque soft contact lens (CL) with a small, central, circular aperture. This was repeated with aperture diameters of 1.5 and 2.5 mm. Each day, monocular and binocular pattern-reversal Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP) were recorded. Additionally, the Pulfrich effect was measured: the task of the subject was to state whether a a 2-deg spot appeared in front or behind the plane of a central cross when moved left-to-right or right-to-left on a display screen. The retinal illuminance of the dominant eye was varied using neutral density (ND) filters to establish the ND value which eliminated the Pulfrich effect for each lens. All experiments were performed at luminance levels of 5 and 30 cd/m(2).\\n\\nRESULTS: Interocular differences in monocular VEP latency (at 30 cd/m(2)) rose to about 12-15 ms and 20-25 ms when the CL aperture was 2.5 and 1.5 mm, respectively. The effect was more pronounced at 5 cd/m(2) (i.e. with larger natural pupils). A strong Pulfrich effect was observed under all conditions, with the effect being less striking for the 2.5 mm aperture. No neural adaptation appeared to occur: neither the interocular differences in VEP latency nor the ND value required to null the Pulfrich effect reduced over each 7-day period of anisocoric vision.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Small-aperture monovision produced marked interocular differences in visual latency and a Pulfrich experience. These were not reduced by adaptation, perhaps because the natural pupil diameter of the dominant eye was continually changing throughout the day due to varying illumination and other factors, making adaptation difficult.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/smallaperture-monovision-pulfrich-experience-absence-neural-adaptation-effects", "reader_count"=>12, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1235245"], "description"=>"<p>Grand-averaged (64 epochs) monocular VEP waveforms from one subject at high (30 cd/m<sup>2</sup>, left) and low (5 cd/m<sup>2</sup>, right) photopic levels for a natural pupil (black line) and with a contact lens of 2.5 mm (dark grey line) and 1.5 mm (light grey line) aperture. P100 latency is indicated in ms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cl", "aperture", "luminance", "vep"], "article_id"=>821809, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sotiris Plainis", "Dionysia Petratou", "Trisevgeni Giannakopoulou", "Hema Radhakrishnan", "Ioannis G. Pallikaris", "W. Neil Charman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_CL_aperture_luminance_levels_on_a_characteristic_VEP_waveform_/821809", "title"=>"Effect of CL aperture luminance levels on a characteristic VEP waveform.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-14 03:13:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1235246"], "description"=>"<p>(upper) Monocular (open circles, dominant eye; open squares, non-dominant eye) and binocular (filled circles) mean latency of the VEP P100 component as a function of time at high (left) and low (right) photopic levels for subjects SP (fig 2a) and for TG (fig 2b). Each point is the average of two recordings. On days -1 and 8 the subject had unobstructed natural pupils. On days 0–7 inclusive the non-dominant (left) eye was wearing a contact lens with an aperture of 2.5 mm in diameter. The dominant eye had its full, unobstructed natural pupil. The legend shows the average pupil size at each condition. (lower) Plot of the interocular latency difference as a function of time. The dotted bold line forms a linear regression for Days 0 to 7.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vep", "latency"], "article_id"=>821810, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sotiris Plainis", "Dionysia Petratou", "Trisevgeni Giannakopoulou", "Hema Radhakrishnan", "Ioannis G. Pallikaris", "W. Neil Charman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_of_VEP_latency_as_a_function_of_time_for_the_2_5_/821810", "title"=>"Plots of VEP latency as a function of time for the 2.5.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-14 03:13:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1235248"], "description"=>"<p>(upper) Plots of monocular (open circles, dominant eye; open squares, non-dominant eye) and binocular (filled circles) mean latency of the VEP P100 component as a function of time at high (left) and low (right) photopic levels for subjects SP (fig 3a) and TG (fig 3b). Each point is the average of two recordings. On days -1 and 8 the subject had unobstructed natural pupils. On days 0–7 inclusive the non-dominant (left) eye was wearing a contact lens with an aperture of 1.5 mm in diameter. The dominant eye had its full, unobstructed natural pupil. The legend shows the average pupil size at each condition. (lower) Plot of the interocular latency difference as a function of time. The dotted bold line forms a linear regression for Days 0 to 7.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["vep", "latency"], "article_id"=>821812, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sotiris Plainis", "Dionysia Petratou", "Trisevgeni Giannakopoulou", "Hema Radhakrishnan", "Ioannis G. Pallikaris", "W. Neil Charman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_of_VEP_latency_as_a_function_of_time_for_the_1_5_/821812", "title"=>"Plots of VEP latency as a function of time for the 1.5.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-14 03:13:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1235249"], "description"=>"<p>The non-dominant eye was wearing a 2.5 mm (circles) or a 1.5 mm lens (squares). Data for subject SP (left) and TG (right) at high (open symbols) and low (filled symbols) photopic levels are presented. The average values of ND filter required to null the Pulfrich effect, when placed in front of the dominant eye, for all conditions are also shown. The dotted / dashed lines form a linear regressions for Days 0 to 7.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nd", "null", "pulfrich"], "article_id"=>821813, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sotiris Plainis", "Dionysia Petratou", "Trisevgeni Giannakopoulou", "Hema Radhakrishnan", "Ioannis G. Pallikaris", "W. Neil Charman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Values_of_ND_filter_required_to_null_the_Pulfrich_effect_as_a_function_of_time_/821813", "title"=>"Values of ND filter required to null the Pulfrich effect as a function of time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-14 03:13:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1235250"], "description"=>"<p>VEP latency is averaged for recordings between Day 0 and Day 7 and is plotted for two photopic luminance levels (30 vs. 5 cd/m<sup>2</sup>). The results of an earlier study<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987#pone.0075987-Plainis1\" target=\"_blank\">[14]</a> using 7 subjects are shown for comparison. The bars indicate ±1 SD.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "vep", "latency", "interocular", "retinal"], "article_id"=>821814, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sotiris Plainis", "Dionysia Petratou", "Trisevgeni Giannakopoulou", "Hema Radhakrishnan", "Ioannis G. Pallikaris", "W. Neil Charman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interocular_differences_in_VEP_latency_as_a_function_of_the_interocular_ratio_of_retinal_illuminance_/821814", "title"=>"Interocular differences in VEP latency as a function of the interocular ratio of retinal illuminance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-14 03:13:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1235252"], "description"=>"<p>Average data are shown for the 2 observers and the 2 luminance conditions. Predicted ND values are based simply on relative pupil areas. The non-dominant eye was wearing a small-aperture CL of 1.5 or 2.5 mm in diameter. The dotted line represents exact agreement with predictions. The dashed lines form regression fits. The bars indicate ±1 SD during the 7 days of the trial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nd", "null", "pulfrich"], "article_id"=>821816, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sotiris Plainis", "Dionysia Petratou", "Trisevgeni Giannakopoulou", "Hema Radhakrishnan", "Ioannis G. Pallikaris", "W. Neil Charman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_vs_predicted_values_of_ND_filter_required_to_null_the_Pulfrich_effect_/821816", "title"=>"Observed vs. predicted values of ND filter required to null the Pulfrich effect.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-14 03:13:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1235253"], "description"=>"<p>The non-dominant eye was wearing a contact lens with an aperture of 2.5 or 1.5 mm in diameter. The values in parentheses correspond to the interocular illuminance ratio, i.e. the ratio of the retinal illuminance in the dominant eye to that of the non-dominant eye, calculated from the relative pupil areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pupil", "diameter", "pulfrich"], "article_id"=>821817, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sotiris Plainis", "Dionysia Petratou", "Trisevgeni Giannakopoulou", "Hema Radhakrishnan", "Ioannis G. Pallikaris", "W. Neil Charman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_925_atural_pupil_diameter_in_mm_of_the_dominant_eye_during_Pulfrich_recordings_/821817", "title"=>"Νatural pupil diameter (in mm) of the dominant eye during Pulfrich recordings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-14 03:13:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1235254"], "description"=>"<p>The non-dominant eye was wearing a contact lens with an aperture of 2.5 or 1.5 mm in diameter. The values in parentheses correspond to the interocular illuminance ratio, i.e. the ratio of the retinal illuminance in the dominant eye to that of the non-dominant eye, calculated from the relative pupil areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pupil", "diameter", "binocular", "monocular", "vep", "recordings", "luminance"], "article_id"=>821818, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sotiris Plainis", "Dionysia Petratou", "Trisevgeni Giannakopoulou", "Hema Radhakrishnan", "Ioannis G. Pallikaris", "W. Neil Charman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075987.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_925_atural_pupil_diameter_in_mm_during_binocular_monocular_VEP_recordings_and_for_two_luminance_levels_/821818", "title"=>"Νatural pupil diameter (in mm) during binocular / monocular VEP recordings and for two luminance levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-14 03:13:22"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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