Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study
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{"title"=>"Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Claire M.", "last_name"=>"Nightingale", "scopus_author_id"=>"35085224700"}, {"first_name"=>"Alicja R.", "last_name"=>"Rudnicka", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603711082"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher G.", "last_name"=>"Owen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202893034"}, {"first_name"=>"Angela S.", "last_name"=>"Donin", "scopus_author_id"=>"35738531100"}, {"first_name"=>"Sian L.", "last_name"=>"Newton", "scopus_author_id"=>"55886441000"}, {"first_name"=>"Cheryl A.", "last_name"=>"Furness", "scopus_author_id"=>"55887868500"}, {"first_name"=>"Emma L.", "last_name"=>"Howard", "scopus_author_id"=>"55887023200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rachel D.", "last_name"=>"Gillings", "scopus_author_id"=>"55887225600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan C K", "last_name"=>"Wells", "scopus_author_id"=>"55603815000"}, {"first_name"=>"Derek G.", "last_name"=>"Cook", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403472903"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter H.", "last_name"=>"Whincup", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006237290"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"370052133", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0076426", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885746437", "pmid"=>"24204625", "sgr"=>"84885746437"}, "id"=>"90d49163-4fc0-32a1-84f3-09a1855f4f85", "abstract"=>"BackgroundBioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat.MethodsCross-sectional study of children aged 8–10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z+weight)}.ResultsEthnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set.ConclusionsEthnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can misrepresent these ethnic differences.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ethnic-gender-specific-equations-needed-derive-fat-free-mass-bioelectrical-impedance-children-south", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1252002"], "description"=>"*<p>Percentage differences shown for log transformed variables.</p><p>Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HT, height; WT, weight; Z, impedance.</p><p>Adjusted for gender, age quartiles, observer (skinfolds only) and a random effect for school.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "equations", "deriving"], "article_id"=>827893, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Claire M. Nightingale", "Alicja R. Rudnicka", "Christopher G. Owen", "Angela S. Donin", "Sian L. Newton", "Cheryl A. Furness", "Emma L. Howard", "Rachel D. Gillings", "Jonathan C. K. Wells", "Derek G. Cook", "Peter H. Whincup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_ethnic_differences_in_body_composition_using_different_equations_for_deriving_fat_free_mass_in_CHASE_data_/827893", "title"=>"Comparison of ethnic differences in body composition using different equations for deriving fat free mass in CHASE data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-18 03:26:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1252001"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; BAC, Black African-Caribbean; SA, South Asian; HT, height; WT, weight; Z, impedance.</p><p>All models are adjusted for random effect of school.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "deriving", "equations", "estimating", "fitting", "impedance", "variables", "adding", "ethnicity"], "article_id"=>827892, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Claire M. Nightingale", "Alicja R. Rudnicka", "Christopher G. Owen", "Angela S. Donin", "Sian L. Newton", "Cheryl A. Furness", "Emma L. Howard", "Rachel D. Gillings", "Jonathan C. K. Wells", "Derek G. Cook", "Peter H. Whincup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coefficients_from_regression_models_deriving_equations_for_estimating_fat_free_mass_by_fitting_height_weight_and_impedance_as_separate_variables_in_the_model_and_adding_interaction_terms_for_ethnicity_and_gender_/827892", "title"=>"Coefficients from regression models deriving equations for estimating fat free mass by fitting height, weight and impedance as separate variables in the model and adding interaction terms for ethnicity and gender.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-18 03:26:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1251998"], "description"=>"<p>Equation A1, fat free mass = height+weight+Z (generic model); Equation A4, fat free mass = height+weight+Z (ethnic- and gender-specific model); Equation C1, fat free mass = height<sup>2</sup>/Z+weight (generic model); Equation C4, fat free mass = height<sup>2</sup>/Z+weight (ethnic- and gender-specific model). Abbreviations: FFM, fat free mass; WE, white European; BAC, black African-Caribbean; SA, South Asian; Z, impedance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equations", "deriving", "bioelectrical", "impedance", "abcc"], "article_id"=>827889, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Claire M. Nightingale", "Alicja R. Rudnicka", "Christopher G. Owen", "Angela S. Donin", "Sian L. Newton", "Cheryl A. Furness", "Emma L. Howard", "Rachel D. Gillings", "Jonathan C. K. Wells", "Derek G. Cook", "Peter H. Whincup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bland_Altman_plots_for_equations_for_deriving_fat_free_mass_from_bioelectrical_impedance_analysis_in_ABCC_Study_by_ethnicity_/827889", "title"=>"Bland-Altman plots for equations for deriving fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance analysis in ABCC Study by ethnicity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-18 03:26:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1252005", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1252006", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1252007", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1252008", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1252009"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Cross-sectional study of children aged 8–10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height<sup>2</sup>/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height<sup>2</sup>/Z+weight)}.</p><p>Results</p><p>Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can misrepresent these ethnic differences.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["equations", "bioelectrical", "impedance", "children", "african-caribbean", "european"], "article_id"=>827896, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Claire M. Nightingale", "Alicja R. Rudnicka", "Christopher G. Owen", "Angela S. Donin", "Sian L. Newton", "Cheryl A. Furness", "Emma L. Howard", "Rachel D. Gillings", "Jonathan C. K. Wells", "Derek G. Cook", "Peter H. Whincup"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Are_Ethnic_and_Gender_Specific_Equations_Needed_to_Derive_Fat_Free_Mass_from_Bioelectrical_Impedance_in_Children_of_South_Asian_Black_African_Caribbean_and_White_European_Origin_Results_of_the_Assessment_of_Body_Composition_in_Children_Study_/827896", "title"=>"Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-18 03:26:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1252003"], "description"=>"*<p>Percentage differences shown for log transformed variables.</p><p>Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HT, height; WT, weight; Z, impedance.</p><p>All differences are adjusted for gender, age quartiles, observer (skinfolds only) and a random effect for school.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "equations", "deriving", "abcc"], "article_id"=>827894, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Claire M. Nightingale", "Alicja R. Rudnicka", "Christopher G. Owen", "Angela S. Donin", "Sian L. Newton", "Cheryl A. Furness", "Emma L. Howard", "Rachel D. Gillings", "Jonathan C. K. Wells", "Derek G. Cook", "Peter H. Whincup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_ethnic_differences_in_body_composition_using_different_equations_for_deriving_fat_free_mass_in_ABCC_Study_data_/827894", "title"=>"Comparison of ethnic differences in body composition using different equations for deriving fat free mass in ABCC Study data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-18 03:26:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1252000"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; BAC, Black African-Caribbean; SA, South Asian; HT<sup>2</sup>/Z, height<sup>2</sup>/impedance.</p><p>All models are adjusted for random effect of school.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "deriving", "equations", "estimating", "fitting", "adding", "ethnicity"], "article_id"=>827891, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Claire M. Nightingale", "Alicja R. Rudnicka", "Christopher G. Owen", "Angela S. Donin", "Sian L. Newton", "Cheryl A. Furness", "Emma L. Howard", "Rachel D. Gillings", "Jonathan C. K. Wells", "Derek G. Cook", "Peter H. Whincup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coefficients_from_regression_models_deriving_equations_for_estimating_fat_free_mass_by_fitting_height_2_impedance_as_a_variable_in_the_model_and_adding_interaction_terms_for_ethnicity_and_gender_/827891", "title"=>"Coefficients from regression models deriving equations for estimating fat free mass by fitting height<sup>2</sup>/impedance as a variable in the model and adding interaction terms for ethnicity and gender.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-18 03:26:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1251999"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; BAC, Black African-Caribbean; SA, South Asian; HT<sup>2</sup>/Z, height<sup>2</sup>/impedance; WT, weight.</p><p>All models are adjusted for random effect of school.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regression", "deriving", "equations", "estimating", "fitting", "variables", "adding", "ethnicity"], "article_id"=>827890, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Claire M. Nightingale", "Alicja R. Rudnicka", "Christopher G. Owen", "Angela S. Donin", "Sian L. Newton", "Cheryl A. Furness", "Emma L. Howard", "Rachel D. Gillings", "Jonathan C. K. Wells", "Derek G. Cook", "Peter H. Whincup"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076426.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coefficients_from_regression_models_deriving_equations_for_estimating_fat_free_mass_by_fitting_height_2_impedance_and_weight_as_variables_in_the_model_and_adding_interaction_terms_for_ethnicity_and_gender_/827890", "title"=>"Coefficients from regression models deriving equations for estimating fat free mass by fitting height<sup>2</sup>/impedance and weight as variables in the model and adding interaction terms for ethnicity and gender.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-18 03:26:33"}

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Relative Metric

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