North Atlantic Blue and Fin Whales Suspend Their Spring Migration to Forage in Middle Latitudes: Building up Energy Reserves for the Journey?
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{"title"=>"North Atlantic Blue and Fin Whales Suspend Their Spring Migration to Forage in Middle Latitudes: Building up Energy Reserves for the Journey?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mónica A.", "last_name"=>"Silva", "scopus_author_id"=>"17135969500"}, {"first_name"=>"Rui", "last_name"=>"Prieto", "scopus_author_id"=>"22986226300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ian", "last_name"=>"Jonsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603341226"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark F.", "last_name"=>"Baumgartner", "scopus_author_id"=>"23987658600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ricardo S.", "last_name"=>"Santos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201375289"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885113289", "sgr"=>"84885113289", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0076507", "pmid"=>"24116112", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"369979303"}, "id"=>"bff94a18-c09c-3ba9-9893-e585bb40e850", "abstract"=>"The need to balance energy reserves during migration is a critical factor for most long-distance migrants and an important determinant of migratory strategies in birds, insects and land mammals. Large baleen whales migrate annually between foraging and breeding sites, crossing vast ocean areas where food is seldom abundant. How whales respond to the demands and constraints of such long migrations remains unknown. We applied a behaviour discriminating hierarchical state-space model to the satellite tracking data of 12 fin whales and 3 blue whales tagged off the Azores, to investigate their movements, behaviour (transiting and area-restricted search, ARS) and daily activity cycles during the spring migration. Fin and blue whales remained at middle latitudes for prolonged periods, spending most of their time there in ARS behaviour. While near the Azores, fin whale ARS behaviour occurred within a restricted area, with a high degree of overlap among whales. There were noticeable behavioural differences along the migratory pathway of fin whales tracked to higher latitudes: ARS occurred only in the Azores and north of 56°N, whereas in between these areas whales travelled at higher overall speeds while maintaining a nearly direct trajectory. This suggests fin whales may alternate periods of active migration with periods of extended use of specific habitats along the migratory route. ARS behaviour in blue whales occurred over a much wider area as whales slowly progressed northwards. The tracks of these whales terminated still at middle latitudes, before any behavioural switch was detected. Fin whales exhibited behavioural-specific diel rhythms in swimming speed but these varied significantly between geographic areas, possibly due to differences in the day-night cycle across areas. Finally, we show a link between fin whales seen in the Azores and those summering in eastern Greenland-western Iceland along a migratory corridor located in central Atlantic waters.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/north-atlantic-blue-fin-whales-suspend-spring-migration-forage-middle-latitudes-building-up-energy-r", "reader_count"=>157, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>44, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>44, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>35, "Other"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>28, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>117, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Energy"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>117}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>28}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Argentina"=>2, "Belgium"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "Portugal"=>2, "Iceland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228822"], "description"=>"<p>Solid line represents the estimate and dashed lines the estimate ±2 SE. Grey areas correspond to sunrise and sunset intervals (mean ± SD).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ars", "whales", "24-hours"], "article_id"=>817837, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GAM_estimate_of_ARS_speed_of_blue_whales_during_24_hours_in_the_Azores_/817837", "title"=>"GAM estimate of ARS speed of blue whales during 24-hours in the Azores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228821"], "description"=>"<p>Hierarchical switching state-space model derived locations of blue whales showing inferred behavioural modes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["switching", "state-space", "derived", "locations", "whales", "inferred", "behavioural"], "article_id"=>817836, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hierarchical_switching_state_space_model_derived_locations_of_blue_whales_showing_inferred_behavioural_modes_/817836", "title"=>"Hierarchical switching state-space model derived locations of blue whales showing inferred behavioural modes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228808"], "description"=>"<p>A. Azores area. B. area between 40 and 56°N. C. area north of 56°N. Solid line represents the estimate and dashed lines the estimate ±2 SE. Grey areas correspond to sunrise and sunset intervals (mean ± SD).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transiting", "fin", "whales", "24-hours", "geographic"], "article_id"=>817833, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GAM_estimate_of_transiting_speed_of_fin_whales_during_24_hours_in_each_geographic_area_/817833", "title"=>"GAM estimate of transiting speed of fin whales during 24-hours in each geographic area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228806"], "description"=>"<p>A. Complete tracks. B. Details of the tracks at middle latitudes, showing the location of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Atlantis-Meteor seamount complex.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["switching", "state-space", "derived", "locations", "fin", "whales", "inferred", "behavioural"], "article_id"=>817831, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hierarchical_switching_state_space_model_derived_locations_of_fin_whales_showing_inferred_behavioural_modes_/817831", "title"=>"Hierarchical switching state-space model derived locations of fin whales showing inferred behavioural modes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228807"], "description"=>"<p>Whale #80702 was tagged on April 30 2010 (tagging location shown by a star) and departed on 11 May 2010. The track shows the inshore-offshore movement pattern south of the islands of Faial and Pico and along the shallow banks where the whale was in ARS for 12 days, and the clear behavioural switch associated with the north/northwest trajectory as it resumed migration.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["movements", "behaviour", "fin", "whales", "azores"], "article_id"=>817832, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_the_movements_and_behaviour_of_fin_whales_in_the_Azores_in_2009_8211_2011_/817832", "title"=>"Example of the movements and behaviour of fin whales in the Azores in 2009–2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228802"], "description"=>"<p>Kaplan-Meier estimate (solid line) of the probability of fin whales not departing (1-probability of departure) from the Azores at various days since tagging (DST). The black dots represent the censored observations (whales whose tags stopped transmitting prior to departure). The dotted lines represent the 25% and 75% estimated probabilities of fin whales not departing from the Azores in relation to DST. The median DST to departure (the DST at which half of the whales have departed) is indicated by the gray dashed line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fin", "whales", "departing", "azores"], "article_id"=>817827, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_fin_whales_not_departing_from_the_Azores_over_time_/817827", "title"=>"Probability of fin whales not departing from the Azores over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228826", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228827", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228828", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228829"], "description"=>"<div><p>The need to balance energy reserves during migration is a critical factor for most long-distance migrants and an important determinant of migratory strategies in birds, insects and land mammals. Large baleen whales migrate annually between foraging and breeding sites, crossing vast ocean areas where food is seldom abundant. How whales respond to the demands and constraints of such long migrations remains unknown. We applied a behaviour discriminating hierarchical state-space model to the satellite tracking data of 12 fin whales and 3 blue whales tagged off the Azores, to investigate their movements, behaviour (transiting and area-restricted search, ARS) and daily activity cycles during the spring migration. Fin and blue whales remained at middle latitudes for prolonged periods, spending most of their time there in ARS behaviour. While near the Azores, fin whale ARS behaviour occurred within a restricted area, with a high degree of overlap among whales. There were noticeable behavioural differences along the migratory pathway of fin whales tracked to higher latitudes: ARS occurred only in the Azores and north of 56°N, whereas in between these areas whales travelled at higher overall speeds while maintaining a nearly direct trajectory. This suggests fin whales may alternate periods of active migration with periods of extended use of specific habitats along the migratory route. ARS behaviour in blue whales occurred over a much wider area as whales slowly progressed northwards. The tracks of these whales terminated still at middle latitudes, before any behavioural switch was detected. Fin whales exhibited behavioural-specific diel rhythms in swimming speed but these varied significantly between geographic areas, possibly due to differences in the day-night cycle across areas. Finally, we show a link between fin whales seen in the Azores and those summering in eastern Greenland-western Iceland along a migratory corridor located in central Atlantic waters.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["atlantic", "fin", "whales", "forage", "reserves"], "article_id"=>817841, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_North_Atlantic_Blue_and_Fin_Whales_Suspend_Their_Spring_Migration_to_Forage_in_Middle_Latitudes_Building_up_Energy_Reserves_for_the_Journey_/817841", "title"=>"North Atlantic Blue and Fin Whales Suspend Their Spring Migration to Forage in Middle Latitudes: Building up Energy Reserves for the Journey?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228801"], "description"=>"<p>Hierarchical switching state-space model derived tracks of 12 fin whales and 3 blue whales.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["switching", "state-space", "derived", "tracks", "12", "fin", "whales"], "article_id"=>817826, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hierarchical_switching_state_space_model_derived_tracks_of_12_fin_whales_and_3_blue_whales_/817826", "title"=>"Hierarchical switching state-space model derived tracks of 12 fin whales and 3 blue whales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228824"], "description"=>"<p>Fin whale movements and behaviour at different stages along the migratory path.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["movements", "behaviour", "stages", "migratory"], "article_id"=>817839, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fin_whale_movements_and_behaviour_at_different_stages_along_the_migratory_path_/817839", "title"=>"Fin whale movements and behaviour at different stages along the migratory path.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228825"], "description"=>"*<p>Whales with short-duration tracks that were not included in the calculation of mean values of residence time and time spent in ARS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fin", "spent", "ars"], "article_id"=>817840, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_fin_and_blue_whale_residence_time_and_time_spent_in_ARS_in_the_Azores_/817840", "title"=>"Estimates of fin and blue whale residence time and time spent in ARS in the Azores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228823"], "description"=>"*<p>Ad: Adult; Juv: Juvenile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fin", "whales", "satellite-tagged", "azores", "2009"], "article_id"=>817838, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tracking_data_for_fin_and_blue_whales_satellite_tagged_off_Azores_from_2009_to_2012_/817838", "title"=>"Tracking data for fin and blue whales satellite-tagged off Azores from 2009 to 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1228809"], "description"=>"<p>A. Azores area. B. area north of 56°N. Solid line represents the estimate and dashed lines the estimate ±2 SE. Grey areas correspond to sunrise and sunset intervals (mean ± SD).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ars", "fin", "whales", "24-hours", "geographic"], "article_id"=>817834, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Mónica A. Silva", "Rui Prieto", "Ian Jonsen", "Mark F. Baumgartner", "Ricardo S. Santos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076507.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GAM_estimate_of_ARS_speed_of_fin_whales_during_24_hours_in_each_geographic_area_/817834", "title"=>"GAM estimate of ARS speed of fin whales during 24-hours in each geographic area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-08 08:47:56"}

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Relative Metric

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