Patent Human Infections with the Whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, Are Not Associated with Alterations in the Faecal Microbiota
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{"title"=>"Patent Human Infections with the Whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, Are Not Associated with Alterations in the Faecal Microbiota", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Philip", "last_name"=>"Cooper", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402087724"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan W.", "last_name"=>"Walker", "scopus_author_id"=>"55726405200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorge", "last_name"=>"Reyes", "scopus_author_id"=>"14068073600"}, {"first_name"=>"Martha", "last_name"=>"Chico", "scopus_author_id"=>"35576766300"}, {"first_name"=>"Susannah J.", "last_name"=>"Salter", "scopus_author_id"=>"55895322200"}, {"first_name"=>"Maritza", "last_name"=>"Vaca", "scopus_author_id"=>"13407864800"}, {"first_name"=>"Julian", "last_name"=>"Parkhill", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005397039"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84885081437", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0076573", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369964567", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24124574", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885081437"}, "id"=>"f9172f20-5f89-350e-8730-e225f68ebe45", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted helminth (STH), Trichuris trichiura colonises the human large intestine where it may modify inflammatory responses, an effect possibly mediated through alterations in the intestinal microbiota. We hypothesised that patent T. trichiura infections would be associated with altered faecal microbiota and that anthelmintic treatment would induce a microbiota resembling more closely that observed in uninfected individuals.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: School children in Ecuador were screened for STH infections and allocated to 3 groups: uninfected, T. trichiura only, and mixed infections with T. trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. A sample of uninfected children and those with T. trichiura infections only were given anthelmintic treatment. Bacterial community profiles in faecal samples were studied by 454 pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes.\n\nRESULTS: Microbiota analyses of faeces were done for 97 children: 30 were uninfected, 17 were infected with T. trichiura, and 50 with T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides. Post-treatment samples were analyzed for 14 children initially infected with T. trichiura alone and for 21 uninfected children. Treatment resulted in 100% cure of STH infections. Comparisons of the microbiota at different taxonomic levels showed no statistically significant differences in composition between uninfected children and those with T. trichiura infections. We observed a decreased proportional abundance of a few bacterial genera from the Clostridia class of Firmicutes and a reduced bacterial diversity among children with mixed infections compared to the other two groups, indicating a possible specific effect of A. lumbricoides infection. Anthelmintic treatment of children with T. trichiura did not alter faecal microbiota composition.\n\nDISCUSSION: Our data indicate that patent human infections with T. trichiura may have no effect on faecal microbiota but that A. lumbricoides colonisation might be associated with a disturbed microbiota. Our results also catalogue the microbiota of rural Ecuadorians and indicate differences with individuals from more urban industrialised societies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/patent-human-infections-whipworm-trichuris-trichiura-not-associated-alterations-faecal-microbiota", "reader_count"=>96, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>17, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>12, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>8, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>18}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>12}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Taiwan"=>1, "Finland"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224633"], "description"=>"<p>Boxes in bold represent the children included in the present analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diagram", "illustrating", "subjects"], "article_id"=>814609, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_diagram_illustrating_selection_of_study_subjects_for_analysis_/814609", "title"=>"Flow diagram illustrating selection of study subjects for analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224634"], "description"=>"<p>Low abundance taxa were excluded from this figure for the sake of clarity. Families with blue background belong to the Firmicutes phylum, red  =  Bacteroidetes, green  =  Proteobacteria, yellow  =  Spirochaetes (mostly <i>Treponema</i> spp.). U.S. data generated by the Human Microbiome Project <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573#pone.0076573-Segata1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>. Errors bars show standard deviation from the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proportional", "abundance", "bacterial", "taxonomic", "97", "ecuadorian", "children", "pre-treatment", "compared"], "article_id"=>814610, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_proportional_abundance_of_selected_bacterial_taxonomic_Families_in_97_rural_Ecuadorian_children_using_pre_treatment_samples_compared_with_U_S_recruited_adults_/814610", "title"=>"Mean proportional abundance of selected bacterial taxonomic Families in 97 rural Ecuadorian children using pre-treatment samples, compared with U.S.-recruited adults.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224635"], "description"=>"<p>Surrounding bar charts show the microbiota composition at the genus level for each sample. Group A  =  children infected with mixed infections with <i>A. lumbricoides</i> and <i>T. trichiura</i> before anthelmintic treatment [N = 50], B  =  children infected with <i>T. trichiura</i> only before treatment [N = 17], C/D  =  uninfected children before treatment [N = 30].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["generated", "jaccard", "calculator", "mothur", "otu-level", "faecal", "samples"], "article_id"=>814611, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cluster_dendrogram_generated_with_the_Jaccard_calculator_in_the_mothur_software_package_showing_similarity_in_community_membership_at_the_OTU_level_between_faecal_samples_from_different_study_groups_/814611", "title"=>"Cluster dendrogram, generated with the Jaccard calculator in the mothur software package, showing similarity in community membership at the OTU-level between faecal samples from different study groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224640"], "description"=>"<p>Surrounding bar charts show the microbiota composition at the genus level for each sample. Group B  =  children infected with <i>T. trichiura</i> only before treatment [N = 17], E =  children infected with <i>T. trichiura</i> only, sampled 21 days post treatment [N = 14], C  =  uninfected children before treatment [N = 21], F  =  uninfected children from Group C, sampled 21 days post treatment [N = 21].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["generated", "jaccard", "calculator", "mothur", "otu-level", "faecal", "samples", "anthelmintic"], "article_id"=>814613, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cluster_dendrogram_generated_with_the_Jaccard_calculator_in_the_mothur_software_package_showing_similarity_in_community_membership_at_the_OTU_level_between_faecal_samples_following_anthelmintic_treatment_/814613", "title"=>"Cluster dendrogram, generated with the Jaccard calculator in the mothur software package, showing similarity in community membership at the OTU-level between faecal samples following anthelmintic treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224646"], "description"=>"<p>Group A  =  children infected with mixed infections with <i>A. lumbricoides</i> and <i>T. trichiura</i> before anthelmintic treatment [N = 50], B  =  children infected with <i>T. trichiura</i> only before treatment [N = 17], C  =  uninfected children before treatment [N = 21], D  =  uninfected children before treatment [N = 9], E  =  children infected with <i>T. trichiura</i> only, sampled 21 days post treatment [N = 14], F  =  uninfected children from Group C, sampled 21 days post treatment [N = 21].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["multidimensional", "scaling", "generated", "mothur", "yue", "clayton", "theta", "overlap", "proportional", "abundance"], "article_id"=>814614, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Non_metric_multidimensional_scaling_plot_generated_in_mothur_using_the_Yue_amp_Clayton_theta_similarity_co_efficient_showing_overlap_in_community_structure_including_proportional_abundance_of_each_OTU_between_each_of_the_study_groups_/814614", "title"=>"Non-metric multidimensional scaling plot, generated in mothur using the Yue & Clayton theta similarity co-efficient, showing overlap in community structure (including proportional abundance of each OTU) between each of the study groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224647"], "description"=>"<p>Group A  =  children infected with mixed infections with <i>A. lumbricoides</i> and <i>T. trichiura</i> before anthelmintic treatment [N = 50], B  =  children infected with <i>T. trichiura</i> only before treatment [N = 17], C  =  uninfected children before treatment [N = 21], D  =  uninfected children before treatment [N = 9], E =  children infected with <i>T. trichiura</i> only, sampled 21 days post treatment [N = 14], F  =  uninfected children from Group C, sampled 21 days post treatment [N = 21].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shannon", "scores", "groups", "ecuadorian"], "article_id"=>814615, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_Shannon_diversity_index_scores_for_each_of_the_study_groups_within_the_overall_Ecuadorian_cohort_/814615", "title"=>"Average Shannon diversity index scores for each of the study groups within the overall Ecuadorian cohort.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224648"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are median values and interquartile ranges (brackets).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["faecal", "microbiota", "bacterial", "genus", "children", "sth", "infected"], "article_id"=>814616, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_composition_of_faecal_microbiota_by_bacterial_genus_in_children_with_no_STH_infection_uninfected_children_infected_with_only_T_trichiura_and_those_infected_with_both_T_trichiura_and_A_lumbricoides_mixed_infection_/814616", "title"=>"Relative composition of faecal microbiota by bacterial genus in children with no STH infection (uninfected), children infected with only <i>T. trichiura</i>, and those infected with both <i>T. trichiura</i> and <i>A. lumbricoides</i> (mixed infection).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224649"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are median values and interquartile ranges (brackets). P values represent comparison of matched pairs pre- and post-treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["faecal", "microbiota", "bacterial", "genus", "children", "infected", "uninfected", "received", "anthelmintic", "matched"], "article_id"=>814617, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_composition_of_faecal_microbiota_by_bacterial_genus_before_and_after_treatment_for_children_infected_with_T_trichiura_only_uninfected_children_and_all_children_that_received_anthelmintic_treatment_all_matched_pairs_/814617", "title"=>"Relative composition of faecal microbiota by bacterial genus before and after treatment for children infected with <i>T. trichiura</i> only, uninfected children, and all children that received anthelmintic treatment (all matched pairs).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224650"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics of study population stratified by infection status with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Epg  =  eggs per gram.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratified", "soil-transmitted", "helminth", "epg", "eggs"], "article_id"=>814618, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_study_population_stratified_by_infection_status_with_soil_transmitted_helminth_infections_Epg_8202_8202_eggs_per_gram_/814618", "title"=>"Characteristics of study population stratified by infection status with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Epg  =  eggs per gram.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224652", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224653", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224655", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1224656"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The soil-transmitted helminth (STH), <i>Trichuris trichiura</i> colonises the human large intestine where it may modify inflammatory responses, an effect possibly mediated through alterations in the intestinal microbiota. We hypothesised that patent <i>T. trichiura</i> infections would be associated with altered faecal microbiota and that anthelmintic treatment would induce a microbiota resembling more closely that observed in uninfected individuals.</p><p>Materials and Methods</p><p>School children in Ecuador were screened for STH infections and allocated to 3 groups: uninfected, <i>T. trichiura</i> only, and mixed infections with <i>T. trichiura</i> and <i>Ascaris lumbricoides</i>. A sample of uninfected children and those with <i>T. trichiura</i> infections only were given anthelmintic treatment. Bacterial community profiles in faecal samples were studied by 454 pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA genes.</p><p>Results</p><p>Microbiota analyses of faeces were done for 97 children: 30 were uninfected, 17 were infected with <i>T. trichiura</i>, and 50 with <i>T. trichiura</i> and <i>A. lumbricoides</i>. Post-treatment samples were analyzed for 14 children initially infected with <i>T. trichiura</i> alone and for 21 uninfected children. Treatment resulted in 100% cure of STH infections. Comparisons of the microbiota at different taxonomic levels showed no statistically significant differences in composition between uninfected children and those with <i>T. trichiura</i> infections. We observed a decreased proportional abundance of a few bacterial genera from the Clostridia class of Firmicutes and a reduced bacterial diversity among children with mixed infections compared to the other two groups, indicating a possible specific effect of <i>A. lumbricoides</i> infection. Anthelmintic treatment of children with <i>T. trichiura</i> did not alter faecal microbiota composition.</p><p>Discussion</p><p>Our data indicate that patent human infections with <i>T. trichiura</i> may have no effect on faecal microbiota but that <i>A. lumbricoides</i> colonisation might be associated with a disturbed microbiota. Our results also catalogue the microbiota of rural Ecuadorians and indicate differences with individuals from more urban industrialised societies.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infections", "alterations", "faecal", "microbiota"], "article_id"=>814620, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philip Cooper", "Alan W. Walker", "Jorge Reyes", "Martha Chico", "Susannah J. Salter", "Maritza Vaca", "Julian Parkhill"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076573.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Patent_Human_Infections_with_the_Whipworm_Trichuris_trichiura_Are_Not_Associated_with_Alterations_in_the_Faecal_Microbiota/814620", "title"=>"Patent Human Infections with the Whipworm, <i>Trichuris trichiura</i>, Are Not Associated with Alterations in the Faecal Microbiota", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-04 01:34:13"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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