The Global Epidemiology and Contribution of Cannabis Use and Dependence to the Global Burden of Disease: Results from the GBD 2010 Study
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{"title"=>"The Global Epidemiology and Contribution of Cannabis Use and Dependence to the Global Burden of Disease: Results from the GBD 2010 Study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Louisa", "last_name"=>"Degenhardt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004040033"}, {"first_name"=>"Alize J.", "last_name"=>"Ferrari", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195348880"}, {"first_name"=>"Bianca", "last_name"=>"Calabria", "scopus_author_id"=>"57201080295"}, {"first_name"=>"Wayne D.", "last_name"=>"Hall", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402629359"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosana E.", "last_name"=>"Norman", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194839077"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"McGrath", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402677688"}, {"first_name"=>"Abraham D.", "last_name"=>"Flaxman", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602883567"}, {"first_name"=>"Rebecca E.", "last_name"=>"Engell", "scopus_author_id"=>"55523014400"}, {"first_name"=>"Greg D.", "last_name"=>"Freedman", "scopus_author_id"=>"55522738400"}, {"first_name"=>"Harvey A.", "last_name"=>"Whiteford", "scopus_author_id"=>"55906494000"}, {"first_name"=>"Theo", "last_name"=>"Vos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003628012"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84886266151", "pui"=>"370104488", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0076635", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84886266151", "pmid"=>"24204649"}, "id"=>"d49e1613-de57-3ddb-999e-c941d4eab888", "abstract"=>"AIMS Estimate the prevalence of cannabis dependence and its contribution to the global burden of disease. METHODS Systematic reviews of epidemiological data on cannabis dependence (1990-2008) were conducted in line with PRISMA and meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Culling and data extraction followed protocols, with cross-checking and consistency checks. DisMod-MR, the latest version of generic disease modelling system, redesigned as a Bayesian meta-regression tool, imputed prevalence by age, year and sex for 187 countries and 21 regions. The disability weight associated with cannabis dependence was estimated through population surveys and multiplied by prevalence data to calculate the years of life lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). YLDs and DALYs attributed to regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia were also estimated. RESULTS There were an estimated 13.1 million cannabis dependent people globally in 2010 (point prevalence0.19% (95% uncertainty: 0.17-0.21%)). Prevalence peaked between 20-24 yrs, was higher in males (0.23% (0.2-0.27%)) than females (0.14% (0.12-0.16%)) and in high income regions. Cannabis dependence accounted for 2 million DALYs globally (0.08%; 0.05-0.12%) in 2010; a 22% increase in crude DALYs since 1990 largely due to population growth. Countries with statistically higher age-standardised DALY rates included the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Western European countries such as the United Kingdom; those with lower DALY rates were from Sub-Saharan Africa-West and Latin America. Regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia accounted for an estimated 7,000 DALYs globally. CONCLUSION Cannabis dependence is a disorder primarily experienced by young adults, especially in higher income countries. It has not been shown to increase mortality as opioid and other forms of illicit drug dependence do. Our estimates suggest that cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia is not a major contributor to population-level disease burden.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/global-epidemiology-contribution-cannabis-dependence-global-burden-disease-results-gbd-2010-study", "reader_count"=>173, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>32, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>32, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>16, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>19, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>20, "Lecturer"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>64, "Neuroscience"=>10, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>33, "Social Sciences"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>64}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>15}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>33}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>15}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>10}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>5, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>11}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257571"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. <i>Prevalence estimates were standardised by population age and sex; AP-HI: Asia Pacific, High Income, As-C: Asia Central, AS-E: Asia East, AS-S: Asia South, A-SE: Asia Southeast, Aus: Australasia, Caribb: Caribbean, Eur-C: Europe Central, Eur-E: Europe Eastern, Eur-W: Europe Western, LA-An: Latin America, Andean, LA-C: Latin America, Central, LA-Sth: Latin America, Southern, LA-Trop: Latin America, Tropical, Nafr-ME: North Africa/Middle East, Nam-HI: North America, High Income, Oc: Oceania, SSA-C: Sub-Saharan Africa, Central, SSA-E: Sub-Saharan Africa, East, SSA-S: Sub-Saharan Africa Southern, SSA-W: Sub-Saharan Africa, West.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prevalence", "cannabis"], "article_id"=>832044, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Louisa Degenhardt", "Alize J. Ferrari", "Bianca Calabria", "Wayne D. Hall", "Rosana E. Norman", "John McGrath", "Abraham D. Flaxman", "Rebecca E. Engell", "Greg D. Freedman", "Harvey A. Whiteford", "Theo Vos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pooled_regional_prevalence_of_cannabis_dependence_2010_/832044", "title"=>"Pooled regional prevalence of cannabis dependence, 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:26:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257582", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257583", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257584", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257585", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257586", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257587", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257588", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257589"], "description"=>"<div><p>Aims</p><p>Estimate the prevalence of cannabis dependence and its contribution to the global burden of disease.</p> <p>Methods</p><p>Systematic reviews of epidemiological data on cannabis dependence (1990-2008) were conducted in line with PRISMA and meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Culling and data extraction followed protocols, with cross-checking and consistency checks. DisMod-MR, the latest version of generic disease modelling system, redesigned as a Bayesian meta-regression tool, imputed prevalence by age, year and sex for 187 countries and 21 regions. The disability weight associated with cannabis dependence was estimated through population surveys and multiplied by prevalence data to calculate the years of life lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). YLDs and DALYs attributed to regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia were also estimated.</p> <p>Results</p><p>There were an estimated 13.1 million cannabis dependent people globally in 2010 (point prevalence0.19% (95% uncertainty: 0.17-0.21%)). Prevalence peaked between 20-24 yrs, was higher in males (0.23% (0.2-0.27%)) than females (0.14% (0.12-0.16%)) and in high income regions. Cannabis dependence accounted for 2 million DALYs globally (0.08%; 0.05-0.12%) in 2010; a 22% increase in crude DALYs since 1990 largely due to population growth. Countries with statistically higher age-standardised DALY rates included the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Western European countries such as the United Kingdom; those with lower DALY rates were from Sub-Saharan Africa-West and Latin America. Regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia accounted for an estimated 7,000 DALYs globally.</p> <p>Conclusion</p><p>Cannabis dependence is a disorder primarily experienced by young adults, especially in higher income countries. It has not been shown to increase mortality as opioid and other forms of illicit drug dependence do. Our estimates suggest that cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia is not a major contributor to population-level disease burden.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["epidemiology", "cannabis", "dependence", "gbd", "2010"], "article_id"=>832053, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Louisa Degenhardt", "Alize J. Ferrari", "Bianca Calabria", "Wayne D. Hall", "Rosana E. Norman", "John McGrath", "Abraham D. Flaxman", "Rebecca E. Engell", "Greg D. Freedman", "Harvey A. Whiteford", "Theo Vos"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>34, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Global_Epidemiology_and_Contribution_of_Cannabis_Use_and_Dependence_to_the_Global_Burden_of_Disease_Results_from_the_GBD_2010_Study_/832053", "title"=>"The Global Epidemiology and Contribution of Cannabis Use and Dependence to the Global Burden of Disease: Results from the GBD 2010 Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:26:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257576"], "description"=>"<p>Note. Low: shows countries with statistically lower DALY rates than global mean; Middle: Shows countries with DALY rates that are not statistically different to global mean; High: Shows countries with statistically higher DALY rates than global mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dalys", "cannabis"], "article_id"=>832047, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Louisa Degenhardt", "Alize J. Ferrari", "Bianca Calabria", "Wayne D. Hall", "Rosana E. Norman", "John McGrath", "Abraham D. Flaxman", "Rebecca E. Engell", "Greg D. Freedman", "Harvey A. Whiteford", "Theo Vos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Country_level_DALYs_per_100_000_population_for_cannabis_dependence_age_standardised_for_2010_/832047", "title"=>"Country-level DALYs per 100,000 population for cannabis dependence, age-standardised, for 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:26:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257577"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. <i>Alcohol use disorders included alcohol dependence and foetal alcohol syndrome; Other drugs: Burden attributable to illicit drug types other than cannabis, opioid, amphetamine and cocaine dependence were estimated under residual categories in GBD 2010</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dalys", "cannabis", "dependence", "disorders", "gbd"], "article_id"=>832048, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Louisa Degenhardt", "Alize J. Ferrari", "Bianca Calabria", "Wayne D. Hall", "Rosana E. Norman", "John McGrath", "Abraham D. Flaxman", "Rebecca E. Engell", "Greg D. Freedman", "Harvey A. Whiteford", "Theo Vos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_proportion_of_DALYs_due_to_cannabis_dependence_relative_to_other_substance_use_disorders_in_GBD_2010_/832048", "title"=>"The proportion of DALYs due to cannabis dependence relative to other substance use disorders in GBD 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:26:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257575"], "description"=>"<p>Global cannabis dependence DALYs (all YLDs) by age and sex, in thousands, 2010.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cannabis", "dependence", "dalys"], "article_id"=>832046, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Louisa Degenhardt", "Alize J. Ferrari", "Bianca Calabria", "Wayne D. Hall", "Rosana E. Norman", "John McGrath", "Abraham D. Flaxman", "Rebecca E. Engell", "Greg D. Freedman", "Harvey A. Whiteford", "Theo Vos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Global_cannabis_dependence_DALYs_all_YLDs_by_age_and_sex_in_thousands_2010_/832046", "title"=>"Global cannabis dependence DALYs (all YLDs) by age and sex, in thousands, 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:26:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257569"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated prevalence (proportion) of cannabis dependence by age, sex and region, 2010.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prevalence", "cannabis", "dependence"], "article_id"=>832042, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Louisa Degenhardt", "Alize J. Ferrari", "Bianca Calabria", "Wayne D. Hall", "Rosana E. Norman", "John McGrath", "Abraham D. Flaxman", "Rebecca E. Engell", "Greg D. Freedman", "Harvey A. Whiteford", "Theo Vos"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076635.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_prevalence_proportion_of_cannabis_dependence_by_age_sex_and_region_2010_/832042", "title"=>"Estimated prevalence (proportion) of cannabis dependence by age, sex and region, 2010.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:26:30"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[265, 471, 604, 723, 827, 926, 1022, 1113, 1210, 1290, 1377, 1454, 1532]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}]}
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