Inhibition of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: A Novel Approach to Reduce Oxidative Browning in Plant Tissue Culture
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{"title"=>"Inhibition of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: A Novel Approach to Reduce Oxidative Browning in Plant Tissue Culture", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrew Maxwell Phineas", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"55918089800"}, {"first_name"=>"Praveen Kumar", "last_name"=>"Saxena", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202335972"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885030169", "sgr"=>"84885030169", "pui"=>"369965591", "pmid"=>"24116165", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0076802"}, "id"=>"44d55a01-52b7-38cb-ad52-2f758264b20e", "abstract"=>"Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/inhibition-phenylpropanoid-biosynthesis-artemisia-annua-l-novel-approach-reduce-oxidative-browning-p", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Chemistry"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1227132"], "description"=>"<p>Images g-i depict an autofluorescent plasmolyzed cell cultured on MS based media supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D. Panels j-o show autofluorescent plasmolyzed cells cultured on MS based media supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D before (j-l) and after (m-o) cell rupture. Confocal images were obtained using 405 nm excitation and emissions between 430-480 nm. Scale bars represent µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["confocal", "overlays", "callus", "cells", "cultured", "ms", "supplemented", "100", "aip"], "article_id"=>816524, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones", "Praveen Kumar Saxena"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076802.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brightfield_a_d_g_j_m_confocal_b_e_h_k_n_and_overlays_c_f_i_l_o_of_Artemisia_annua_callus_cells_cultured_on_MS_based_media_supplemented_with_4_5_M_2_4_D_a_c_and_MS_based_media_supplemented_with_4_5_M_2_4_D_and_100_M_AIP_d_f_/816524", "title"=>"Brightfield (a,d,g,j,m), confocal (b,e,h,k,n), and overlays (c,f,i,l,o) of <i>Artemisia annua</i> callus cells cultured on MS based media supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D (a-c), and MS based media supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D and 100 µM AIP (d-f).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-07 02:16:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1227127"], "description"=>"<p>A-B: callus at a macroscopic level, C-D: callus cells using brightfield microscopy with phase contrast, E-F: UV induced fluorescence of callus cells stained with fluorescein diacetate (blue=autofluorescence, green=stain), and G-H: cell viability using fluorescein diacetate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microscopic", "observations", "callus", "grown", "ms", "supplemented", "100", "aip", "incorporated"], "article_id"=>816519, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones", "Praveen Kumar Saxena"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076802.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Macroscopic_and_microscopic_observations_of_Artemisia_annua_callus_grown_on_MS_medium_supplemented_with_4_5_M_2_4_D_A_C_E_G_and_the_same_medium_with_100_M_AIP_incorporated_B_D_F_H_/816519", "title"=>"Macroscopic and microscopic observations of <i>Artemisia annua</i> callus grown on MS medium supplemented with 4.5 µM 2,4-D (A,C,E,G) and the same medium with 100 µM AIP incorporated (B,D,F,H).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-07 02:16:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1227123"], "description"=>"<p>Analytical methods were conducted on solvent extracts of <i>Artemisia annua</i> callus grown on various media and include a modified Folin-Coicalteu methods (F-C Assay), absorbance at 340 nm (absorbance), and autofluorescence (excitation at 360 nm, emissions at 450 nm; Fluorescence).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparing", "analytical", "methods", "browning"], "article_id"=>816515, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones", "Praveen Kumar Saxena"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076802.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_values_comparing_various_analytical_methods_with_one_another_and_visual_tissue_browning_scores_/816515", "title"=>"Correlation values comparing various analytical methods with one another and visual tissue browning scores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-07 02:16:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1227122"], "description"=>"<p>Bars represent the mean of seven replicates plus or minus the standard error of the mean. Images above the bars display callus grown on the corresponding level of AIP.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["browning", "scores", "callus", "cultured", "supplemented", "2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic"], "article_id"=>816514, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones", "Praveen Kumar Saxena"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076802.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_browning_scores_1_10_of_Artemisia_annua_callus_cultured_on_4_5_M_2_4_D_based_media_supplemented_with_various_levels_of_2_aminoindane_2_phosphonic_acid_/816514", "title"=>"Visual browning scores (1-10) of <i>Artemisia annua</i> callus cultured on 4.5 µM 2,4-D based media supplemented with various levels of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-07 02:16:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1227134"], "description"=>"<p>American elm (a and b) and sugar maple (c and d) callus cultured on MS media supplemented with 5 µM BA and 1 µM NAA with (b and d) or without (a and c) the addition of 1 mM AIP.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elm", "maple", "callus", "cultured", "ms", "supplemented", "ba", "naa", "mm"], "article_id"=>816526, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones", "Praveen Kumar Saxena"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076802.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_American_elm_a_and_b_and_sugar_maple_c_and_d_callus_cultured_on_MS_media_supplemented_with_5_181_M_BA_and_1_181_M_NAA_with_b_and_d_or_without_a_and_c_the_addition_of_1_mM_AIP_/816526", "title"=>"American elm (a and b) and sugar maple (c and d) callus cultured on MS media supplemented with 5 µM BA and 1 µM NAA with (b and d) or without (a and c) the addition of 1 mM AIP.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-07 02:16:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1227121"], "description"=>"<p>Points represent the mean of seven biological replicates with bars indicating the standard errors of the means.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fluorescence", "spectra", "nm", "extracts", "callus", "cultured", "100", "aip", "compared", "chlorogenic"], "article_id"=>816513, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones", "Praveen Kumar Saxena"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076802.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Absorbance_and_Fluorescence_spectra_360_nm_excitation_of_extracts_from_Artemisia_annua_callus_cultured_on_11_M_BA_2_7_M_or_4_5_M_2_4_D_based_media_with_and_without_addition_of_100_M_AIP_compared_to_that_of_chlorogenic_acid_/816513", "title"=>"Absorbance and Fluorescence spectra (360 nm excitation) of extracts from <i>Artemisia annua</i> callus cultured on 11µM BA/2.7 µM or 4.5 µM 2,4-D based media with and without addition of 100 µM AIP compared to that of chlorogenic acid.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-07 02:16:21"}

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Relative Metric

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