Tn6188 - A Novel Transposon in Listeria monocytogenes Responsible for Tolerance to Benzalkonium Chloride
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{"title"=>"Tn6188 - A Novel Transposon in Listeria monocytogenes Responsible for Tolerance to Benzalkonium Chloride", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anneliese", "last_name"=>"Müller", "scopus_author_id"=>"55441422400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathrin", "last_name"=>"Rychli", "scopus_author_id"=>"13613976600"}, {"first_name"=>"Meryem", "last_name"=>"Muhterem-Uyar", "scopus_author_id"=>"55869820700"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Zaiser", "scopus_author_id"=>"55869403700"}, {"first_name"=>"Beatrix", "last_name"=>"Stessl", "scopus_author_id"=>"35762380000"}, {"first_name"=>"Caitriona M.", "last_name"=>"Guinane", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507317709"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul D.", "last_name"=>"Cotter", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006716039"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Wagner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404049967"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephan", "last_name"=>"Schmitz-Esser", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507474934"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84884891596", "sgr"=>"84884891596", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0076835", "pmid"=>"24098567", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"369937443"}, "id"=>"4381429f-2eba-32ed-9341-d704b28be2bc", "abstract"=>"Controlling the food-borne pathogen Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many L. monocytogenes strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of L. monocytogenes are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn6188, a novel transposon in L. monocytogenes conferring tolerance to BC. Tn6188 is related to Tn554 from Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and other Tn554-like transposons such as Tn558, Tn559 and Tn5406 found in various Firmicutes. Tn6188 comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the radC gene and consists of three transposase genes (tnpABC) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from S. aureus and to EmrE from Escherichia coli. We screened 91 L. monocytogenes strains for the presence of Tn6188 by PCR and found Tn6188 in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. L. monocytogenes strains harboring Tn6188 had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 ± 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn6188 (14 ± 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in qacH expression in the presence of BC. QacH deletion mutants were generated in two L. monocytogenes strains and growth analysis revealed that ΔqacH strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn6188 is responsible for BC tolerance in various L. monocytogenes strains.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/tn6188-novel-transposon-listeria-monocytogenes-responsible-tolerance-benzalkonium-chloride", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>10}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221948"], "description"=>"<p>Gene expression of Tn<i>6188 </i><i>qacH</i> in the presence of different BC concentrations was determined by quantitative RT-PCR (<b>A</b>). Values, represented as x-fold of control (0 mg/l BC), were normalized according 16S rRNA expression levels. *p<0.02. Differences in MICs of BC using <i>L. monocytogenes</i> wildtype and Δ<i>qacH</i> strains (4423 and 6179) are shown in (<b>B</b>). MICs represent mean values of three biological independent replicates, SD=0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["benzalkonium", "chloride", "mics"], "article_id"=>812677, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anneliese Müller", "Kathrin Rychli", "Meryem Muhterem-Uyar", "Andreas Zaiser", "Beatrix Stessl", "Caitriona M. Guinane", "Paul D. Cotter", "Martin Wagner", "Stephan Schmitz-Esser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_expression_of_qacH_and_benzalkonium_chloride_MICs_of_qacH_strains_/812677", "title"=>"Gene expression of <i>qacH</i> and benzalkonium chloride MICs of Δ<i>qacH</i> strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-02 01:33:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221949", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221950", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221951", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221952", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221953", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221954"], "description"=>"<div><p>Controlling the food-borne pathogen <i>Listeria</i> (L.) <i>monocytogenes</i> is of great importance from a food safety perspective, and thus for human health. The consequences of failures in this regard have been exemplified by recent large listeriosis outbreaks in the USA and Europe. It is thus particularly notable that tolerance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many <i>L. monocytogenes</i> strains. However, the molecular determinants and mechanisms of BC tolerance of <i>L. monocytogenes</i> are still largely unknown. Here we describe Tn<i>6188</i>, a novel transposon in <i>L. monocytogenes</i> conferring tolerance to BC. Tn<i>6188</i> is related to Tn<i>554</i> from <i>Staphylococcus</i> (S.) <i>aureus</i> and other Tn<i>554</i>-like transposons such as Tn<i>558</i>, Tn<i>559</i> and Tn<i>5406</i> found in various <i>Firmicutes</i>. Tn<i>6188</i> comprises 5117 bp, is integrated chromosomally within the <i>radC</i> gene and consists of three transposase genes (<i>tnpABC</i>) as well as genes encoding a putative transcriptional regulator and QacH, a small multidrug resistance protein family (SMR) transporter putatively associated with export of BC that shows high amino acid identity to Smr/QacC from <i>S. aureus</i> and to EmrE from <i>Escherichia coli</i>. We screened 91 <i>L. monocytogenes</i> strains for the presence of Tn<i>6188</i> by PCR and found Tn<i>6188</i> in 10 of the analyzed strains. These isolates were from food and food processing environments and predominantly from serovar 1/2a. <i>L. monocytogenes</i> strains harboring Tn<i>6188</i> had significantly higher BC minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (28.5 ± 4.7 mg/l) than strains without Tn<i>6188</i> (14 ± 3.2 mg/l). Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR we could show a significant increase in <i>qacH</i> expression in the presence of BC. <i>QacH</i> deletion mutants were generated in two <i>L. monocytogenes</i> strains and growth analysis revealed that Δ<i>qacH</i> strains had lower BC MICs than wildtype strains. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that Tn<i>6188</i> is responsible for BC tolerance in various <i>L. monocytogenes</i> strains.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transposon", "benzalkonium", "chloride"], "article_id"=>812678, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anneliese Müller", "Kathrin Rychli", "Meryem Muhterem-Uyar", "Andreas Zaiser", "Beatrix Stessl", "Caitriona M. Guinane", "Paul D. Cotter", "Martin Wagner", "Stephan Schmitz-Esser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Tn_6188_A_Novel_Transposon_in_Listeria_monocytogenes_Responsible_for_Tolerance_to_Benzalkonium_Chloride/812678", "title"=>"Tn<i>6188</i> - A Novel Transposon in <i>Listeria monocytogenes</i> Responsible for Tolerance to Benzalkonium Chloride", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-02 01:33:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221946"], "description"=>"<p>The alignment was done with MAFFT [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835#B23\" target=\"_blank\">23</a>], shading of conserved amino acid residues was performed with Boxshade. Amino acid residues important for function in EmrE and QacC are highlighted in red. Data for important amino acid residues are taken from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835#B31\" target=\"_blank\">31</a>-<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835#B33\" target=\"_blank\">33</a>]. The consensus is displayed at the bottom of each alignment block, asterisks indicate identical positions, dots indicate similar positions. Abbreviations and accession numbers: QacH_LM4423 (<i>L. monocytogenes</i> 4423, CCP37730), QacH_LM6179 (<i>L. monocytogenes</i> 6179, CCP37735), QacH_LMK15 (<i>L. monocytogenes</i> K15, HG329628), QacH_LMHPB2262 (<i>L. monocytogenes</i> HPB2262, EFF95069), QACC_STAAU (<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, P14319), QACH_STASA (<i>Staphylococcus saprophyticus</i>, O87868), QACJ_STAAU (<i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, NP_783299), EMRE_ECOLI (<i>E. coli</i>, P23895).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alignment", "qach"], "article_id"=>812675, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anneliese Müller", "Kathrin Rychli", "Meryem Muhterem-Uyar", "Andreas Zaiser", "Beatrix Stessl", "Caitriona M. Guinane", "Paul D. Cotter", "Martin Wagner", "Stephan Schmitz-Esser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amino_acid_sequence_alignment_of_QacH_from_Tn_6188_and_related_Qac_smr_EmrE_like_proteins_/812675", "title"=>"Amino acid sequence alignment of QacH from Tn<i>6188</i> and related Qac/smr/EmrE-like proteins.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-02 01:33:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221947"], "description"=>"<p>BC MICs of ten <i>L. monocytogenes</i> strains with (+Tn<i>6188</i>, A) and without (-Tn<i>6188</i>, B) Tn<i>6188</i> are shown. MICs represent mean values of three biological independent replicates, SD=0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chloride", "mics"], "article_id"=>812676, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anneliese Müller", "Kathrin Rychli", "Meryem Muhterem-Uyar", "Andreas Zaiser", "Beatrix Stessl", "Caitriona M. Guinane", "Paul D. Cotter", "Martin Wagner", "Stephan Schmitz-Esser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Benzalkonium_chloride_MICs_of_L_monocytogenes_strains_/812676", "title"=>"Benzalkonium chloride MICs of <i>L. monocytogenes</i> strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-02 01:33:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1221945"], "description"=>"<p>The transposase genes <i>tnpABC</i> are shown in dark blue, blue and light blue, respectively. Effector proteins conferring antimicrobial resistance are shown in red; proteins with other or unknown function are shown in orange. The 6 bp nucleotide sequences at the transposon junctions are shown in boxes. The disrupted <i>radC</i> genes are indicated by an asterisk.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transposon", "transposons"], "article_id"=>812674, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anneliese Müller", "Kathrin Rychli", "Meryem Muhterem-Uyar", "Andreas Zaiser", "Beatrix Stessl", "Caitriona M. Guinane", "Paul D. Cotter", "Martin Wagner", "Stephan Schmitz-Esser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076835.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Organization_of_the_L_monocytogenes_transposon_Tn_6188_and_comparison_with_other_related_transposons_Tn_554_X03216_Tn_5406_AF186237_Tn_558_AJ715531_Tn_559_FN677369_/812674", "title"=>"Organization of the <i>L. monocytogenes</i> transposon Tn<i>6188</i> and comparison with other related transposons Tn<i>554</i> (X03216), Tn<i>5406</i> (AF186237), Tn<i>558</i> (AJ715531), Tn<i>559</i> (FN677369).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-02 01:33:07"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Computational biology", "average_usage"=>[295, 511, 651, 775, 882, 992, 1100, 1201, 1304, 1400, 1486, 1570, 1650]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[293, 503, 638, 755, 861, 960, 1056, 1146, 1239, 1323, 1403, 1491, 1568]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[267, 466, 592, 709, 806, 901, 989, 1075, 1162, 1254, 1342, 1424, 1486]}]}
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