Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images
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{"title"=>"Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"José Manuel", "last_name"=>"Peña", "scopus_author_id"=>"8908632800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jorge", "last_name"=>"Torres-Sánchez", "scopus_author_id"=>"55614963700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ana Isabel", "last_name"=>"de Castro", "scopus_author_id"=>"55204600800"}, {"first_name"=>"Maggi", "last_name"=>"Kelly", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403315325"}, {"first_name"=>"Francisca", "last_name"=>"López-Granados", "scopus_author_id"=>"55879881000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885398102", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0077151", "sgr"=>"84885398102", "isbn"=>"1545-2123 (Electronic)\\n1543-5008 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24146963", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"370004591"}, "id"=>"83ce9710-66c3-33a7-9408-5fdaa23885ca", "abstract"=>"The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/weed-mapping-earlyseason-maize-fields-using-objectbased-analysis-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-uav-images-1", "reader_count"=>210, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Researcher"=>46, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>41, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>53, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>14, "Researcher"=>46, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>41, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>53, "Other"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>37, "Unspecified"=>17, "Environmental Science"=>43, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Computer Science"=>16, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>26}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>37}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>26}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>60}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>16}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>17}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>43}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Denmark"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>3, "Italy"=>1, "Australia"=>2, "Switzerland"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "Spain"=>4}, "group_count"=>14}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"71", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"63", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Agriculture", "average_usage"=>[241, 422, 551, 659, 765, 866, 954, 1043, 1142, 1235, 1311, 1397, 1462]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Signal processing", "average_usage"=>[248, 406, 514, 603, 689, 787, 859, 930, 1027, 1083, 1131, 1201, 1270]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}]}
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