The Influence of Sex, Stroke and Distance on the Lactate Characteristics in High Performance Swimming
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{"title"=>"The Influence of Sex, Stroke and Distance on the Lactate Characteristics in High Performance Swimming", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Benjamin", "last_name"=>"Holfelder", "scopus_author_id"=>"55195913100"}, {"first_name"=>"Niklas", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"55894079500"}, {"first_name"=>"Dieter", "last_name"=>"Bubeck", "scopus_author_id"=>"55194890300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24167563", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0077185", "pui"=>"370089739", "isbn"=>"1932-6203; 1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84886049261", "sgr"=>"84886049261"}, "id"=>"82c477ca-68ca-3939-9b96-5708470d0676", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: In order to achieve world-class performances, regular performance diagnostics is required as an essential prerequisite for guiding high performance sport. In high performance swimming, the lactate performance diagnostic is an important instrument in testing the sport specific endurance capacity. Although the role of lactate as a signaling molecule, fuel and a gluconeogenic substrate is accepted, lactate parameters are discussed concerning stability, explanatory power and interpretability.\\n\\nMETHODS: We calculated the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) of Bunc using the swimming-specific lactate threshold test by Pansold.\\n\\nRESULTS: The cross-sectional analysis (ANOVA) of n = 398 high performance swimmers showed significant effects for sex, stroke and distance on the IAT, the percentage of personal best time on the IAT (% of PB on IAT) and maximal lactate values (max. bLA). For the freestyle events the IAT decreased, % of PB on IAT and max. bLA increased from 100 to 400 m significantly in men and women. Women showed significantly higher % of PB on IAT with descriptive lower IAT in 7 of 8 analyzed events. Men showed significantly higher max. bLA in 5 of 8 events. In the second step, the analysis of 1902 data sets of these 398 athletes with a multi-level analysis (MLA) showed also significant effects for sex, swimming distance and stroke. For initial status and development over time, the effect sizes for the variables distance and sex were medium to large, whereas for stroke there were no or small effect sizes.\\n\\nDISCUSSION: These significant results suggest that lactate tests in swimming specifically have to consider the lactate affecting factors sex and distance under consideration of the time period between measurements. Anthropometrical factors and the physiology of women are possible explanations for the relative better performance for lower lactate concentrations compared to men.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/influence-sex-stroke-distance-lactate-characteristics-high-performance-swimming", "reader_count"=>61, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>35, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>35}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Norway"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1254794"], "description"=>"<p>Graphical Determination of the IAT by Bunc et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077185#pone.0077185-Bunc1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a> with the Pansold-function y = a*e<sup>(b*x)</sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077185#pone.0077185-Deutscher1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077185#pone.0077185-Rudolph1\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["IAT", "bunc", "et", "pansold-function"], "article_id"=>829973, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Benjamin Holfelder", "Niklas Brown", "Dieter Bubeck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077185.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Graphical_Determination_of_the_IAT_by_Bunc_et_al_11_with_the_Pansold_function_y_a_e_b_x_42_43_/829973", "title"=>"Graphical Determination of the IAT by Bunc et al. [11] with the Pansold-function y = a*e<sup>(b*x)</sup>[42], [43].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-22 03:06:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1254795"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: Ba = Backstroke, Br = Breaststroke, Bu = Butterfly, Fr = Freestyle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["1902", "sets", "athletes", "multi"], "article_id"=>829974, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Benjamin Holfelder", "Niklas Brown", "Dieter Bubeck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077185.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Attribution_of_the_1902_data_sets_of_n_8202_8202_398_athletes_for_the_multi_level_analysis_MLA_for_each_event_and_sex_/829974", "title"=>"Attribution of the 1902 data sets of n = 398 athletes for the multi level analysis (MLA) for each event and sex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-22 03:06:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1254796"], "description"=>"<p>p = .05*, p = .001**, p<.001***.</p><p>Abbreviations: Ba = Backstroke, Br = Breaststroke, Bu = Butterfly, Fr = Freestyle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["IAT", "bunc", "sexes", "means", "deviations", "intervals", "lactate", "pansold", "pb"], "article_id"=>829975, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Benjamin Holfelder", "Niklas Brown", "Dieter Bubeck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077185.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Differences_in_IAT_of_Bunc_et_11_mmol_L_8722_1_between_sexes_given_as_means_M_standard_deviations_SD_and_confidence_intervals_of_the_lactate_step_test_of_Pansold_and_the_percentage_of_the_personal_best_time_on_the_IAT_of_PB_on_IAT_for_male_M_and_female_F/829975", "title"=>"Differences in IAT of Bunc et[11] [mmol*L<sup>−1</sup>] between sexes given as means (M), standard deviations (SD) and confidence intervals of the lactate step test of Pansold and the percentage of the personal best time on the IAT (% of PB on IAT) for male (M) and female (F) of n = 398 athletes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-22 03:06:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1254797"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: Ba = Backstroke, Br = Breaststroke, Bu = Butterfly, Fr = Freestyle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pansold"], "article_id"=>829977, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Benjamin Holfelder", "Niklas Brown", "Dieter Bubeck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077185.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>49, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Information_about_the_Pansold_test_protocol_42_p_169_/829977", "title"=>"Information about the Pansold test protocol [42] (p. 169).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-22 03:06:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1254799"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: Ba = Backstroke, Br = Breaststroke, Bu = Butterfly, Fr = Freestyle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lactate", "concentrations"], "article_id"=>829978, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Benjamin Holfelder", "Niklas Brown", "Dieter Bubeck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077185.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Blood_lactate_concentrations_bLA_mmol_L_8722_1_and_percentage_of_individual_best_time_of_PB_for_each_step_/829978", "title"=>"Blood lactate concentrations (bLA [mmol*L<sup>−1</sup>]) and percentage of individual best time (% of PB) for each step.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-22 03:06:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1254800"], "description"=>"*<p>Time = number of days between the measuring times of the athlete.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["multi", "intercept", "IAT", "pb", "bla"], "article_id"=>829979, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Benjamin Holfelder", "Niklas Brown", "Dieter Bubeck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077185.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_Fixed_Effects_of_the_multi_level_analysis_MLA_random_intercept_random_slope_for_IAT_mmol_L_8722_1_of_PB_on_IAT_and_max_bLA_mmol_L_8722_1_/829979", "title"=>"Estimates of Fixed Effects of the multi level analysis (MLA, random intercept & random slope) for IAT [mmol<sup>*</sup>L<sup>−1</sup>], % of PB on IAT and max. bLA [mmol<sup>*</sup>L<sup>−1</sup>].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-22 03:06:20"}

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Relative Metric

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