Grazers and Phytoplankton Growth in the Oceans: an Experimental and Evolutionary Perspective
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{"title"=>"Grazers and Phytoplankton Growth in the Oceans: An Experimental and Evolutionary Perspective", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Simona", "last_name"=>"Ratti", "scopus_author_id"=>"18134707100"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew H.", "last_name"=>"Knoll", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102250655"}, {"first_name"=>"Mario", "last_name"=>"Giordano", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201827454"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24204815", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84886256824", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0077349", "pui"=>"370104476", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84886256824"}, "id"=>"08ba11ad-cea7-3810-a938-dc546378c4ab", "abstract"=>"The taxonomic composition of phytoplankton responsible for primary production on continental shelves has changed episodically through Earth history. Geological correlations suggest that major changes in phytoplankton composition correspond in time to changes in grazing and seawater chemistry. Testing hypotheses that arise from these correlations requires experimentation, and so we carried out a series of experiments in which selected phytoplankton species were grown in treatments that differed with respect to the presence or absence of grazers as well as seawater chemistry. Both protistan (Euplotes sp.) and microarthropod (Acartia tonsa) grazers changed the growth dynamics and biochemical composition of the green alga Tetraselmis suecica, the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp., increasing the specific growth rate and palatability of the eukaryotic algae, while decreasing or leaving unchanged both parameters in the cyanobacteria. Synechococcus (especially) and Thalassiosira produced toxins effective against the copepod, but ciliate growth was unaffected. Acartia induced a 4-6 fold increase of Si cell quota in the diatom, but Euplotes had no similar effect. The differential growth responses of the eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria to ciliate grazing may help to explain the apparently coeval radiation of eukaryophagic protists and rise of eukaryotes to ecological prominence as primary producers in Neoproterozoic oceans. The experimental results suggest that phytoplankton responses to the later radiation of microarthropod grazers were clade-specific, and included changes in growth dynamics, toxin synthesis, encystment, and (in diatoms) enhanced Si uptake.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/grazers-phytoplankton-growth-oceans-experimental-evolutionary-perspective", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258020", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258021", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258022", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258023", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258024", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258025", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258026", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258027", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258028", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258029", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258030", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258031", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258032", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1258033"], "description"=>"<div><p>The taxonomic composition of phytoplankton responsible for primary production on continental shelves has changed episodically through Earth history. Geological correlations suggest that major changes in phytoplankton composition correspond in time to changes in grazing and seawater chemistry. Testing hypotheses that arise from these correlations requires experimentation, and so we carried out a series of experiments in which selected phytoplankton species were grown in treatments that differed with respect to the presence or absence of grazers as well as seawater chemistry. Both protistan (<i>Euplotes</i> sp.) and microarthropod (<i>Acartia tonsa</i>) grazers changed the growth dynamics and biochemical composition of the green alga <i>Tetraselmis suecica</i>, the diatom <i>Thalassiosira weissflogii</i>, and the cyanobacterium <i>Synechococcus</i> sp., increasing the specific growth rate and palatability of the eukaryotic algae, while decreasing or leaving unchanged both parameters in the cyanobacteria. <i>Synechococcus</i> (especially) and <i>Thalassiosira</i> produced toxins effective against the copepod, but ciliate growth was unaffected. <i>Acartia</i> induced a 4-6 fold increase of Si cell quota in the diatom, but <i>Euplotes</i> had no similar effect<i>.</i> The differential growth responses of the eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria to ciliate grazing may help to explain the apparently coeval radiation of eukaryophagic protists and rise of eukaryotes to ecological prominence as primary producers in Neoproterozoic oceans. The experimental results suggest that phytoplankton responses to the later radiation of microarthropod grazers were clade-specific, and included changes in growth dynamics, toxin synthesis, encystment, and (in diatoms) enhanced Si uptake. </p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phytoplankton", "evolutionary"], "article_id"=>832353, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simona Ratti", "Andrew H. Knoll", "Mario Giordano"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.s014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>24, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grazers_and_Phytoplankton_Growth_in_the_Oceans_an_Experimental_and_Evolutionary_Perspective_/832353", "title"=>"Grazers and Phytoplankton Growth in the Oceans: an Experimental and Evolutionary Perspective", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:51:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257943"], "description"=>"<p>Protein content of (A) <i>T. suecica</i>, (B) <i>T. weissfloggi</i>, and (C) <i>Synechococcus</i> sp. cells cultured at 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 30 mM SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and in the presence of <i>Euplotes</i> sp. or <i>A. tonsa</i>. Error bars represent standard deviation calculated for at least four independent replicates. Histograms on top of which the same letter appears represent means that are not statistically different; different letters identify means that are significantly different (p > 0.05). </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grazers", "algal"], "article_id"=>832307, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simona Ratti", "Andrew H. Knoll", "Mario Giordano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_grazers_on_algal_protein_content_/832307", "title"=>"Effect of grazers on algal protein content.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:51:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257944"], "description"=>"<p>Relative amount of carbohydrate of (A) <i>T. suecica</i> and (B) <i>Synechococcus</i> sp. cells cultured in the presence of 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 30 mM SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and of <i>Euplotes</i> sp. or <i>A. tonsa</i>. Carbohydrates were estimated from FTIR absorbances according to Palmucci et al. (2011), normalized for cellular volume and relative to to values obtained from cells cultured at 30 mM SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and in the absence of grazers. Error bars represent standard deviation calculated for at least four independent replicates. When the same letter appears above more than one histogram, those values are not statistically different; different letters identify means that are significantly different (p < 005).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grazers", "algal"], "article_id"=>832308, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simona Ratti", "Andrew H. Knoll", "Mario Giordano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_grazers_on_algal_carbohydrate_content_/832308", "title"=>"Effect of grazers on algal carbohydrate content.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:51:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257941"], "description"=>"<p>Specific growth rate of (A) <i>T. suecica</i>, (B) <i>T. weissflogii</i> and (C) <i>Synechococcus</i> sp. cultured at 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 30 mM SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, and in the presence of the ciliate <i>Euplotes</i> sp. or the copepod <i>Acartia tonsa</i>. Error bars represent standard deviation calculated from at least three independent replicates. Letters above the histograms indicate statistical significance of differences: when the same letter appears on top of more than one bar, those values are not significantly different; different letters identify statistically different means (p > 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grazers", "cultured"], "article_id"=>832305, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simona Ratti", "Andrew H. Knoll", "Mario Giordano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_grazers_on_the_specific_growth_rate_of_cultured_algae_/832305", "title"=>"Effect of grazers on the specific growth rate of cultured algae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:51:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257948"], "description"=>"<p>This figure depicts the relative amount of silica in <i>T. weissflogii</i> cells cultured at 1, 5, 10 or 30 mM SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and in the presence of either <i>Euplotes</i> sp. or <i>Acartia tonsa</i>. Silicate was estimated from FTIR absorbances according to Palmucci et al. (2011), normalized for cell volume and relative to values obtained from cells cultured at 30 mM SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and in the absence of grazers. Error bars represent standard deviation calculated from at least four independent replicates. Histograms on top of which the same letter appears represent means that are not statistically different; different letters identify means that are significantly different (p > 0.05). </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grazers", "silica"], "article_id"=>832312, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simona Ratti", "Andrew H. Knoll", "Mario Giordano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_grazers_on_the_amount_of_silica_in_Thalassiosira_weissflogii_cells_/832312", "title"=>"Effect of grazers on the amount of silica in <i>Thalassiosira weissflogii</i> cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:51:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257949"], "description"=>"<p>This figure shows the overall level of reduction of organic constituents in (A) <i>Tetraselmis suecica</i>, (B) <i>Thalassiosira weissflogii</i> and (C) <i>Synechococcus</i> sp. cells cultured in media containing 1, 5, 10 or 30 mM SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and in the presence of either <i>Euplotes</i> sp. or <i>Acartia tonsa</i>. Error bars show standard deviation calculated from at least four independent replicates. Histograms on top of which the same letter appears represent means that are not statistically different; different letters identify means that are significantly different (p > 0.05). </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grazers"], "article_id"=>832313, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simona Ratti", "Andrew H. Knoll", "Mario Giordano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_grazers_on_the_level_of_reduction_of_organic_cell_constituents_/832313", "title"=>"Effect of grazers on the level of reduction of organic cell constituents.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:51:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1257947"], "description"=>"<p>Relative amount of lipid of (A) <i>T. suecica</i>, (B) <i>T. weissflogii</i> and (C) <i>Synechococcus</i> sp. cells cultured in the presence of 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 30 mM SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and of <i>Euplotes</i> sp. or <i>A. tonsa</i>. Lipids were estimated from FTIR absorbances according to Palmucci et al. (2011), normalized for cellular volume and relative to values obtained from cells cultured at 30 mM SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and in the absence of grazers. Error bars represent standard deviation calculated for at least four independent replicates. Histograms on top of which the same letter appears represent means that are not statistically different; different letters identify means that are significantly different (p > 0.05). </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["grazers", "algal", "lipid"], "article_id"=>832311, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Simona Ratti", "Andrew H. Knoll", "Mario Giordano"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077349.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_grazers_on_algal_lipid_content_/832311", "title"=>"Effect of grazers on algal lipid content.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-24 03:51:41"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Marine ecology", "average_usage"=>[322, 480]}]}
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