The Pituitary Gland of the European Eel Reveals Massive Expression of Genes Involved in the Melanocortin System
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{"title"=>"The Pituitary Gland of the European Eel Reveals Massive Expression of Genes Involved in the Melanocortin System", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Eirill", "last_name"=>"Ager-Wick", "scopus_author_id"=>"49961066300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ron P.", "last_name"=>"Dirks", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006615775"}, {"first_name"=>"Erik", "last_name"=>"Burgerhout", "scopus_author_id"=>"24483003600"}, {"first_name"=>"Rasoul", "last_name"=>"Nourizadeh-Lillabadi", "scopus_author_id"=>"10439498200"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniëlle L.", "last_name"=>"de Wijze", "scopus_author_id"=>"55037458400"}, {"first_name"=>"Herman P.", "last_name"=>"Spaink", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006280247"}, {"first_name"=>"Guido E.E.J.M.", "last_name"=>"van den Thillart", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004342788"}, {"first_name"=>"Katsumi", "last_name"=>"Tsukamoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201952972"}, {"first_name"=>"Sylvie", "last_name"=>"Dufour", "scopus_author_id"=>"56038295900"}, {"first_name"=>"Finn Arne", "last_name"=>"Weltzien", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601955432"}, {"first_name"=>"Christiaan V.", "last_name"=>"Henkel", "scopus_author_id"=>"36896569800"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885400163", "sgr"=>"84885400163", "pui"=>"370004500", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24130881", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0077396"}, "id"=>"9582cc41-714b-3628-ae6b-cf0bb6b238bb", "abstract"=>"Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. Synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. In the European eel extensive attention has been directed towards understanding the different components of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis, but little is known about the regulation of upstream processes in the pituitary gland. In order to gain a broader mechanistic understanding of the eel pituitary gland, we have performed RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of the pituitary of prepubertal female silver eels. RNA-seq reads generated on the Illumina platform were mapped to the recently assembled European eel genome. The most abundant transcript in the eel pituitary codes for pro-opiomelanocortin, the precursor for hormones of the melanocortin system. Several genes putatively involved in downstream processing of pro-opiomelanocortin were manually annotated, and were found to be highly expressed, both by RNA-seq and by qPCR. The melanocortin system, which affects skin color, energy homeostasis and in other teleosts interacts with the reproductive system, has so far received limited attention in eels. However, since up to one third of the silver eel pituitary's mRNA pool encodes pro-opiomelanocortin, our results indicate that control of the melanocortin system is a major function of the eel pituitary.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/pituitary-gland-european-eel-reveals-massive-expression-genes-involved-melanocortin-system", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Chemistry"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"France"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232217", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232218", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232219", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232220", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232221", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232222", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232223"], "description"=>"<div><p>Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland regulate important processes such as development, growth and metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and body pigmentation. Synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones are regulated by different factors from the hypothalamus, but also through feedback mechanisms from peripheral organs, and from the pituitary itself. In the European eel extensive attention has been directed towards understanding the different components of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis, but little is known about the regulation of upstream processes in the pituitary gland. In order to gain a broader mechanistic understanding of the eel pituitary gland, we have performed RNA-seq transcriptome profiling of the pituitary of prepubertal female silver eels. RNA-seq reads generated on the Illumina platform were mapped to the recently assembled European eel genome. The most abundant transcript in the eel pituitary codes for pro-opiomelanocortin, the precursor for hormones of the melanocortin system. Several genes putatively involved in downstream processing of pro-opiomelanocortin were manually annotated, and were found to be highly expressed, both by RNA-seq and by qPCR. The melanocortin system, which affects skin color, energy homeostasis and in other teleosts interacts with the reproductive system, has so far received limited attention in eels. However, since up to one third of the silver eel pituitary’s mRNA pool encodes pro-opiomelanocortin, our results indicate that control of the melanocortin system is a major function of the eel pituitary.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pituitary", "gland", "european", "eel", "reveals", "genes", "melanocortin"], "article_id"=>819489, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eirill Ager-Wick", "Ron P. Dirks", "Erik Burgerhout", "Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi", "Daniëlle L. de Wijze", "Herman P. Spaink", "Guido E. E. J. M. van den Thillart", "Katsumi Tsukamoto", "Sylvie Dufour", "Finn-Arne Weltzien", "Christiaan V. Henkel"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>47, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Pituitary_Gland_of_the_European_Eel_Reveals_Massive_Expression_of_Genes_Involved_in_the_Melanocortin_System_/819489", "title"=>"The Pituitary Gland of the European Eel Reveals Massive Expression of Genes Involved in the Melanocortin System", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:01:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232210"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>): Pairwise comparisons of normalized expression values for all genes between the four silver eel samples (for details, see Materials and methods). The red dot indicates the expression level of pro-opiomelanocortin. Spearman rank correlations (ρ) for the different comparisons show a good correspondence between the expression values for the different silver eel samples. (<b>B</b>): Top 15 expressed genes in silver eel samples, displayed as means of normalized expression ± standard deviations (SD) on a log scale. (<b>C</b>): Top 15 expressed genes in GO category Molecular Function ‘hormone activity’ (GO:0005184), displayed as means of normalized expression ± SD on a log scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>819482, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eirill Ager-Wick", "Ron P. Dirks", "Erik Burgerhout", "Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi", "Daniëlle L. de Wijze", "Herman P. Spaink", "Guido E. E. J. M. van den Thillart", "Katsumi Tsukamoto", "Sylvie Dufour", "Finn-Arne Weltzien", "Christiaan V. Henkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gene_expression_in_silver_eels_/819482", "title"=>"Gene expression in silver eels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:01:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232212"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>): The gene encoding pro-opiomelanocortin (pomc) was manually annotated based on coverage by RNA-seq reads. <i>pomc</i> is located on scaffold 861 of the European eel genome assembly, and contains three exons. The first exon contains the 5′ UTR (white), the second exon contains the last part of the 5′ UTR and the coding sequence (black), while the third exon contains coding sequence and the 3′ UTR (white). The plot indicates the total local read coverage scaled by the normalization factor for each sample and each nucleotide position along the gene. Details about the annotation are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#pone.0077396.s007\" target=\"_blank\">table S4</a>. A substantial fraction (15–30%) of the total number of aligned reads maps to the <i>pomc</i> gene (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#pone.0077396.s005\" target=\"_blank\">table S2</a> for details). (<b>B</b>): Amino acid sequence comparison of <i>pomc</i> between different <i>Anguilla</i> species. The comparison shows greater similarity between <i>A. anguilla</i> (JX441983) and <i>A. japonica</i> (AY158010) (99.1%) than between <i>A. anguilla</i> and <i>A. rostrata</i> (AF194969) (92.3%). (<b>C</b>): Post-translational processing of the prohormone Pomc to its bioactive hormone components. In the corticotropes situated in the <i>rostral </i><i>pars</i> distalis prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) is known to cleave the prohormone to generate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and β-lipotropic hormone (β-LPH), while in the melanotropes in the <i>pars </i><i>intermedia</i> these hormones are subsequently cleaved by prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) to generate, respectively, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and corticotropin intermediate peptide (CLIP), and β-endorphin (β-END) and γ-lipotropin (γ-LPH, further processed into β-MSH) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#B42\" target=\"_blank\">42</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#B43\" target=\"_blank\">43</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#B65\" target=\"_blank\">65</a>]. The γ-MSH sequence that derives from the N-terminal part of <i>pomc</i> in higher vertebrates is absent from the <i>pomc</i> genes of teleosts [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#B66\" target=\"_blank\">66</a>]. The granin neuroendocrine protein 7b2 (7B2) is an endogenous inhibitor protein that is required for active PC2 enzyme. The generation of mature α-MSH is catalysed by carboxypeptidase e (CPE). Figure adapted from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#B42\" target=\"_blank\">42</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#B67\" target=\"_blank\">67</a>]. The same markings are used for the <i>pomc</i> derived peptides in both panel B and C: signal sequence (purple), α-MSH (yellow), CLIP (pink), β-MSH (green) and β-END (blue).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pro-opiomelanocortin"], "article_id"=>819484, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eirill Ager-Wick", "Ron P. Dirks", "Erik Burgerhout", "Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi", "Daniëlle L. de Wijze", "Herman P. Spaink", "Guido E. E. J. M. van den Thillart", "Katsumi Tsukamoto", "Sylvie Dufour", "Finn-Arne Weltzien", "Christiaan V. Henkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Massive_expression_of_pro_opiomelanocortin_in_silver_eels_/819484", "title"=>"Massive expression of pro-opiomelanocortin in silver eels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:01:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232213"], "description"=>"<p>Expression of genes belonging to the Gene Ontology term ‘peptide hormone processing’ (GO:0016486). The four silver eel samples are grouped together to the left (silver eel 1–4 from left to right), while the gene expression for the yellow eel and the mature eel is placed to the right and displays an expression pattern similar to the silver eel samples. Genes involved in the processing of pro-opiomelanocortin are highly expressed (red), and include carboxypeptidase e, prohormone convertase 2 and neuroendocrine protein 7b2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genes", "ontology"], "article_id"=>819485, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eirill Ager-Wick", "Ron P. Dirks", "Erik Burgerhout", "Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi", "Daniëlle L. de Wijze", "Herman P. Spaink", "Guido E. E. J. M. van den Thillart", "Katsumi Tsukamoto", "Sylvie Dufour", "Finn-Arne Weltzien", "Christiaan V. Henkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_genes_in_Gene_Ontology_category_8216_peptide_hormone_processing_8217_/819485", "title"=>"Expression of genes in Gene Ontology category ‘peptide hormone processing’.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:01:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1232214"], "description"=>"<p>Quantitative PCR validation of pro-opiomelanocortin and other highly expressed genes involved in the processing of the prohormone found by RNA-seq in the silver eel samples: pro-opiomelanocortin (pomc), prohormone convertase 2 copy 1 (pc2a), prohormone convertase 2 copy 2 (pc2b), secretogranin II copy 1 (scg2a), secretogranin II copy 2 (scg2b), secretogranin III copy 1(scg3a), secretogranin III copy 2 (scg3b), neuroendocrine protein 7b2 copy 1(7b2a), neuroendocrine protein 7b2 copy 2 (7b2b) and carboxypeptidase e (cpe). Note that <i>pc2b</i> and <i>scg2a</i> were studied by RNA-seq only, and not investigated by qPCR due to limitations for designing primers from these genes where we only obtained partial sequences. Primer sequences are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#pone.0077396.s004\" target=\"_blank\">table S1</a> and details about the annotation of the genes are provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396#pone.0077396.s007\" target=\"_blank\">table S4</a>. Results are presented as means ± standard deviations (SD) on log scales for both methods, where the left y-axis represent the re-quantified RNA-seq normalized gene expression (n=4) and the right y-axis represent the expression by qPCR (n=5). </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rna-seq", "qpcr", "experiments", "genes", "melanocortin"], "article_id"=>819486, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eirill Ager-Wick", "Ron P. Dirks", "Erik Burgerhout", "Rasoul Nourizadeh-Lillabadi", "Daniëlle L. de Wijze", "Herman P. Spaink", "Guido E. E. J. M. van den Thillart", "Katsumi Tsukamoto", "Sylvie Dufour", "Finn-Arne Weltzien", "Christiaan V. Henkel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077396.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_between_RNA_seq_and_qPCR_experiments_of_genes_involved_in_the_melanocortin_system_/819486", "title"=>"Comparison between RNA-seq and qPCR experiments of genes involved in the melanocortin system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-10 07:01:26"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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