Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions
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{"title"=>"Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kerry", "last_name"=>"O’Brien"}, {"first_name"=>"Walter", "last_name"=>"Forrest"}, {"first_name"=>"Dermot", "last_name"=>"Lynott"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Daly"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905289075", "sgr"=>"84905289075", "issn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0077552", "pmid"=>"24204867", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"563079801"}, "id"=>"08186f29-0931-3bc6-8ccc-3cf35af1c51c", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites.\\n\\nMETHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns.\\n\\nRESULTS: After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/racism-gun-ownership-gun-control-biased-attitudes-whites-influence-policy-decisions", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Arts and Humanities"=>7, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Psychology"=>13, "Social Sciences"=>26, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>26}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>13}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "United States"=>4}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1263135"], "description"=>"<p>Significant two-tailed relationships are indicated ***p&lt;0.001; **p&lt;0.01; *p&lt;0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["coefficients", "bivariate"], "article_id"=>838492, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kerry O’Brien", "Walter Forrest", "Dermot Lynott", "Michael Daly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077552.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Spearman_s_correlation_coefficients_for_bivariate_relationship_between_all_variables_/838492", "title"=>"Spearman’s correlation coefficients for bivariate relationship between all variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-31 03:05:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1263132"], "description"=>"***<p>p&lt;0.001;**p&lt;0.01;*p&lt;0.05;</p>a<p>Adjusting for all other variables in the model except having gun in home.</p>b<p>Adjusting for all other variables in the model including having gun in home. All VIF-values are below 2.02. Link-tests indicate that multivariate model was correctly specified (t-statistic.69). The p value for the F-adjusted mean residual test for goodness-of-fit was (0.18).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["multivariate", "relationships", "logistic", "regressions", "displayed", "handgun"], "article_id"=>838489, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kerry O’Brien", "Walter Forrest", "Dermot Lynott", "Michael Daly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077552.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Univariate_and_multivariate_relationships_from_logistic_regressions_are_displayed_for_opposition_to_a_handgun_ban_in_home_among_US_whites_/838489", "title"=>"Univariate and multivariate relationships from logistic regressions are displayed for opposition to a handgun ban in home among US whites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-31 03:05:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1263133"], "description"=>"***<p>p&lt;0.001;**p&lt;0.01;*p&lt;0.05;</p>a<p>Adjusting for all other variables in the model, except having a gun in home.</p>b<p>Adjusting for all other variables in the model including having a gun in home. VIF-values were below 2.04. Link-tests indicate that multivariate model was (t-statistic 0.04). F-adjusted mean residual tests for goodness-of-fit p value 0.04.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["multivariate", "relationships", "logistic", "regressions", "displayed", "permits", "concealed", "handguns"], "article_id"=>838490, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kerry O’Brien", "Walter Forrest", "Dermot Lynott", "Michael Daly"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077552.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Univariate_and_multivariate_relationships_from_logistic_regressions_are_displayed_for_support_for_permits_to_carry_concealed_handguns_among_US_whites_/838490", "title"=>"Univariate and multivariate relationships from logistic regressions are displayed for support for permits to carry concealed handguns among US whites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-31 03:05:04"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Political science", "average_usage"=>[421, 740, 912, 1049, 1166, 1307, 1424, 1535, 1682, 1829, 1942, 2049, 2090]}]}
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