Staphylococcal Superantigens Stimulate Immortalized Human Adipocytes to Produce Chemokines
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{"title"=>"Staphylococcal superantigens stimulate immortalized human adipocytes to produce chemokines.", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bao G", "last_name"=>"Vu"}, {"first_name"=>"Francoise a", "last_name"=>"Gourronc"}, {"first_name"=>"David a", "last_name"=>"Bernlohr"}, {"first_name"=>"Patrick M", "last_name"=>"Schlievert"}, {"first_name"=>"Aloysius J", "last_name"=>"Klingelhutz"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PloS one", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24205055", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0077988", "pui"=>"563085846", "issn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84907042018", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907042018"}, "id"=>"4cc009d1-4f74-3b6b-8522-5de06f53899f", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Human adipocytes may have significant functions in wound healing and the development of diabetes through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after stimulation by gram-negative bacterial endotoxin. Diabetic foot ulcers are most often associated with staphylococcal infections. Adipocyte responses in the area of the wound may play a role in persistence and pathology. We studied the effect of staphylococcal superantigens (SAgs) on immortalized human adipocytes, alone and in the presence of bacterial endotoxin or staphylococcal α-toxin.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primary non-diabetic and diabetic human preadipocytes were immortalized by the reverse transcriptase component of telomerase (TERT) and the E6/E7 genes of human papillomavirus. The immortal cells were demonstrated to have properties of non-immortalized pre-adipocytes and could be differentiated into mature and functional adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes exposed to staphylococcal SAgs produced robust levels of cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but there were no significant differences in levels between the non-diabetic and diabetic cells. Cytokine production was increased by co-incubation of adipocytes with SAgs and endotoxin together. In contrast, α-toxin alone was cytotoxic at high concentrations, but, at sub-cytotoxic doses, did not stimulate production of IL-6 and IL-8.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Endotoxin has been proposed to contribute to diabetes through enhanced insulin resistance after chronic exposure and stimulation of adipocytes to produce cytokines. Our data indicate staphylococcal SAgs TSST-1 and SEB alone and in combination with bacterial endotoxin also stimulate adipocytes to produce cytokines and thus may contribute to the inflammatory response found in chronic diabetic ulcers and in the systemic inflammation that is associated with the development and persistence of diabetes. The immortal human pre-adipocytes reported here will be useful for studies to understand further the mechanism by which toxins are involved in wound healing and the development and clinical manifestations of obesity and diabetes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/staphylococcal-superantigens-stimulate-immortalized-human-adipocytes-produce-chemokines", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1262223/Table_1.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Patrick M. Schlievert", "Aloysius J. Klingelhutz", "Bao G. Vu", "Francoise A. Gourronc", "David A. Bernlohr"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["respective", "q-rt-pcr"], "title"=>"<p>Genes that were analyzed by q-RT-PCR with respective primers.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Genes_that_were_analyzed_by_q_RT_PCR_with_respective_primers_/837443", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077988.t001"], "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 12:04:19", "article_id"=>837443, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>Genes that were analyzed by q-RT-PCR with respective primers.</p>"}
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  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1262217/Figure_2.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Patrick M. Schlievert", "Aloysius J. Klingelhutz", "Bao G. Vu", "Francoise A. Gourronc", "David A. Bernlohr"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["markers", "differentiated", "adipocyte"], "title"=>"<p>Expression of adipocyte markers in differentiated cells.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_of_adipocyte_markers_in_differentiated_cells_/837434", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077988.g002"], "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 12:04:19", "article_id"=>837434, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p >NPADs and DPADs (white bars) were differentiated into NDADs and DDADs (black bars), respectively. The expression of adipocyte markers was examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (q-RT-PCR). (A) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR&#947;); (B) CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP&#945;); (C) lipoprotein lipase (LPL); (D) fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP-4); (E) adipsin; (F) adiponectin; and (G) leptin were all induced to high levels upon differentiation. (H) A marker of pre-adipocytes termed C-C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2) was expressed in the undifferentiated DPAD and NPAD cells but reduced upon differentiation. Values were normalized to GAPDH and made relative to undifferentiated NPADs and represent 3 replicates. All transcript level changes in differentiated cells as compared to undifferentiated cells were statistically significant (*represents p&lt;0.05; **represents p&lt;0.01, Students t-test). For all genes except leptin, differences between DDADs and NDADs were significant (#p&lt;0.05, Students t-test).</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1262218/Figure_3.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Patrick M. Schlievert", "Aloysius J. Klingelhutz", "Bao G. Vu", "Francoise A. Gourronc", "David A. Bernlohr"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["il-8", "ddads", "il-6", "induced"], "title"=>"<p>Endotoxin (LPS) induced IL-6 and Il-8 production in both DDADs and NDADs.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Endotoxin_LPS_induced_IL_6_and_Il_8_production_in_both_DDADs_and_NDADs_/837435", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077988.g003"], "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 12:04:19", "article_id"=>837435, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p >After differentiation, DDADs and NDADs were treated with endotoxin (5 ng/ml) for 24 h. The culture supernates were collected for IL-6 and IL-8 quantification by ELISA. For both IL-6 and IL-8, relative differences between DDADs and NDADS were significant (**represents p&lt;0.01, Students t-test).</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1262219/Figure_4.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Patrick M. Schlievert", "Aloysius J. Klingelhutz", "Bao G. Vu", "Francoise A. Gourronc", "David A. Bernlohr"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["seb", "il-8", "il-6", "ddads", "induced"], "title"=>"<p>TSST-1 and SEB induced IL-6 and Il-8 production in DDADs and NDADs.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_TSST_1_and_SEB_induced_IL_6_and_Il_8_production_in_DDADs_and_NDADs_/837437", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077988.g004"], "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 12:04:19", "article_id"=>837437, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p >Differentiated adipocytes were treated with 50/ml and 100 ug/ml of TSST-1 or SEB for 24 h. The culture supernates were collected from DDADs for IL-6 (a) and IL-8 (b) and NDADs IL-6 (c) and IL-8 (d) for quantification by ELISA (*represents p&lt;0.05; **p&lt;0.01, Students t-test). Fold changes in IL-6 (e) and IL-8 (f) production were calculated in DDADs and NDADs after TSST-1 and SEB exposure. Values represent fold changes relative to PBS-treated controls.</p>"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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