Oral Region Homologies in Paleozoic Crinoids and Other Plesiomorphic Pentaradial Echinoderms
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{"title"=>"Oral region homologies in paleozoic crinoids and other plesiomorphic pentaradial echinoderms", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Thomas W.", "last_name"=>"Kammer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003933345"}, {"first_name"=>"Colin D.", "last_name"=>"Sumrall", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603947684"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel", "last_name"=>"Zamora", "scopus_author_id"=>"23010887100"}, {"first_name"=>"William I.", "last_name"=>"Ausich", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003479113"}, {"first_name"=>"Bradley", "last_name"=>"Deline", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508363411"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0077989", "pui"=>"372190672", "sgr"=>"84892918590", "pmid"=>"24244284", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892918590"}, "id"=>"a6721e3b-d7ea-3342-b236-e97cde5df21d", "abstract"=>"The phylogenetic relationships between major groups of plesiomorphic pentaradial echinoderms, the Paleozoic crinoids, blastozoans, and edrioasteroids, are poorly understood because of a lack of widely recognized homologies. Here, we present newly recognized oral region homologies, based on the Universal Elemental Homology model for skeletal plates, in a wide range of fossil taxa. The oral region of echinoderms is mainly composed of the axial, or ambulacral, skeleton, which apparently evolved more slowly than the extraxial skeleton that forms the majority of the body. Recent phylogenetic hypotheses have focused on characters of the extraxial skeleton, which may have evolved too rapidly to preserve obvious homologies across all these groups. The axial skeleton conserved homologous suites of characters shared between various edrioasteroids and specific blastozoans, and between other blastozoans and crinoids. Although individual plates can be inferred as homologous, no directly overlapping suites of characters are shared between edrioasteroids and crinoids. Six different systems of mouth (peristome) plate organization (Peristomial Border Systems) are defined. These include four different systems based on the arrangement of the interradially-positioned oral plates and their peristomial cover plates, where PBS A1 occurs only in plesiomorphic edrioasteroids, PBS A2 occurs in plesiomorphic edrioasteroids and blastozoans, and PBS A3 and PBS A4 occur in blastozoans and crinoids. The other two systems have radially-positioned uniserial oral frame plates in construction of the mouth frame. PBS B1 has both orals and uniserial oral frame plates and occurs in edrioasterid and possibly edrioblastoid edrioasteroids, whereas PBS B2 has exclusively uniserial oral frame plates and is found in isorophid edrioasteroids and imbricate and gogiid blastozoans. These different types of mouth frame construction offer potential synapomorphies to aid in parsimony-based phylogenetics for exploring branching order among stem groups on the echinoderm tree of life.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/oral-region-homologies-paleozoic-crinoids-other-plesiomorphic-pentaradial-echinoderms", "reader_count"=>12, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276206"], "description"=>"<p>Camera lucida drawing of the oral surface of the glyptocystitoid rhombiferan <i>Lepadocystis moorei</i> (Meek, 1871) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Meek1\" target=\"_blank\">[72]</a> (CMCIP 57349) with plates colored according to Universal Elemental Homology. Red plates (O1–O7) are oral plates that form the border of the peristome. Blue plates (1–5) are primary peristomial cover plates (PPCP). Green plates are ambulacral floor plates (AFP), tan plates are ambulacral cover plates (ACP). A–E are the ambulacral designations based on the Carpenter <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Carpenter1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a> system. The mouth or peristome is located beneath PPCP1, 3, and 4. The gonopore and hydropore are gp and hp, respectively. S are shared cover plates of the shared ambulacra. (After <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Sumrall10\" target=\"_blank\">[57]</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["elemental"], "article_id"=>847038, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Kammer", "Colin D. Sumrall", "Samuel Zamora", "William I. Ausich", "Bradley Deline"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Universal_elemental_homology_/847038", "title"=>"Universal elemental homology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-11 04:11:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276215"], "description"=>"<p>Colored and uncolored views for plate comparison; color key as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>; geologic ages in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. A,B, D, E. the eocrinoid <i>Rhopalocystis destombesi</i> Ubaghs, 1963 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Ubaghs5\" target=\"_blank\">[73]</a>, A, B, latex cast of paratype PMO A29122 with only orals and floor plates preserved, D, E, latex cast of paratype PMO A29124 with all oral surface plates preserved; C, F. the glyptocystitoid <i>Quadrocystis graffhami</i> Sprinkle, 1982 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Sprinkle8\" target=\"_blank\">[74]</a>, holotype OU 8972; G, H. the diploporan <i>Eumorphocystis multiporata</i> Branson and Peck, 1940 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Branson1\" target=\"_blank\">[75]</a>, SUI 97598; I, L. the coronoid <i>Stephanocrinus gemmiformis</i> Conrad, 1842 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Conrad1\" target=\"_blank\">[76]</a>, SUI 134869; J, K. the paracrinoid <i>Columbocystis typica</i> Bassler, 1950 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Bassler1\" target=\"_blank\">[77]</a>, SUI 134870. Scale bars: 5 mm (A–L).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oral-region", "plates", "more-derived"], "article_id"=>847047, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Kammer", "Colin D. Sumrall", "Samuel Zamora", "William I. Ausich", "Bradley Deline"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Homologous_oral_region_plates_in_more_derived_blastozoans_/847047", "title"=>"Homologous oral-region plates in more-derived blastozoans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-11 04:11:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276230"], "description"=>"<p>List of key taxa discussed or illustrated; order follows <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["taxa", "discussed", "follows"], "article_id"=>847061, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Kammer", "Colin D. Sumrall", "Samuel Zamora", "William I. Ausich", "Bradley Deline"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_key_taxa_discussed_or_illustrated_order_follows_Table_3_/847061", "title"=>"List of key taxa discussed or illustrated; order follows Table 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-11 04:11:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276229"], "description"=>"*<p>Primary Peristomial Cover Plates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ordered", "peristomial"], "article_id"=>847060, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Kammer", "Colin D. Sumrall", "Samuel Zamora", "William I. Ausich", "Bradley Deline"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Key_oral_region_characters_ordered_by_Peristomial_Border_System_PBS_/847060", "title"=>"Key oral region characters; ordered by Peristomial Border System (PBS).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-11 04:11:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276226"], "description"=>"<p>A. PBS A1, interior view of <i>Kailidiscus</i> showing the mouth frame constructed by integrated interradial plates (IIP), or orals, and unfused biserial floor plates, black areas are the elongated peristome in the center and podial pores between plates, modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Zhao1\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a>; B. PBS A2, the diploporan <i>Protocrinites </i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Sumrall2\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>, note that orals 2 and 5 do not contact the peristome (black); C. PBS A3, the crinoid <i>Palaeocrinus</i>, note the oval peristome that had shared peristomial cover plates, modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Sprinkle9\" target=\"_blank\">[89]</a>; D. PBS A4, the coronoid <i>Stephanocrinus</i>, note the round peristome that was covered by only five primary peristomial cover plates, modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Brett1\" target=\"_blank\">[90]</a>; E. PBS B1, the edrioasterid <i>Edriophus</i> with both oral plates (O1–O6) and oral frame plates (A–E), an interpretation based on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 4G, I</a>; F. PBS B2, interior view of the isorophid <i>Hypsiclavus</i> showing oral frame plates (A–E) in line with uniserial floor plates, modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Sumrall8\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peristomial", "systems", "plates", "removed"], "article_id"=>847057, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Kammer", "Colin D. Sumrall", "Samuel Zamora", "William I. Ausich", "Bradley Deline"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_peristomial_border_systems_PBS_with_cover_plates_removed_to_expose_the_mouth_frame_/847057", "title"=>"Examples of peristomial border systems (PBS) with cover plates removed to expose the mouth frame.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-11 04:11:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276225"], "description"=>"<p>Colored and uncolored views for plate comparison; color key as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>, except that purple plates are oral frame plates; geologic ages in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. A, E,B, F. the plesiomorphic edrioasteroid <i>Kailidiscus chinensis</i> Zhao et al., 2010 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Zhao1\" target=\"_blank\">[48]</a>, latex casts of paratype GM 2103, note the integrated interradial (IIP) plates, in red, judged to be oral plate homologues, A, E, exterior view, B,F, interior view; C, D. the gogiid blastozoan <i>Sinoeocrinus lui</i> Zhao et al., 1994 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Zhao2\" target=\"_blank\">[86]</a>, latex cast of GTBM 95265, oral view with the radially positioned oral frame plates that give rise to brachioles; G, H, I, J. the edrioasterid edrioasteroid <i>Edriophus levis</i> Bather, 1914 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Bather2\" target=\"_blank\">[87]</a>, G, H, exterior view, note the oral plates, in red, CMCIP 40480, I, J, interior view, CMCIP 40478, note the orals in red and oral frame plates in purple form the peristomial border; K, L. the isorophid edrioasteroid <i>Anedriophus moroccoensis</i> Sumrall and Zamora, 2011 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Sumrall9\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a>, FSTG/AA-BCBb-OI-25, interior view showing the radially positioned oral frame plates; M, N. the imbricate blastozoan <i>Lepidocystis</i> cf. <i>L. wanneri</i> Foerste, 1938 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Foerste1\" target=\"_blank\">[88]</a>, latex cast of MCZ 628, interior view with the radially positioned oral frame plates that lead to floor plates. Scale bars: 5 mm (A, B, C, D, E–K, M, N), 2.5 mm (K, L).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oral-region", "plates", "edrioasteroids", "less-derived"], "article_id"=>847056, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Kammer", "Colin D. Sumrall", "Samuel Zamora", "William I. Ausich", "Bradley Deline"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Homologous_oral_region_plates_in_edrioasteroids_and_less_derived_blastozoans_/847056", "title"=>"Homologous oral-region plates in edrioasteroids and less-derived blastozoans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-11 04:11:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276221"], "description"=>"<p>Colored and uncolored views for plate comparison; color key as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>; geologic ages in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. A, G. the plesiomorphic cladid <i>Carabocrinus treadwelli</i> Sinclair, 1945 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Sinclair1\" target=\"_blank\">[78]</a>, OU 9127, note the lack of floor plates where the ambulacral cover plates are missing on the B-ray, and the hydropore in Oral 1; B, C. the plesiomorphic cladid <i>Nuxocrinus crassus</i> Whiteaves, 1887 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Whiteaves1\" target=\"_blank\">[79]</a>, plesiotype, USNM 305473, note the madreporite in Oral 1; D, J. the camerate <i>Collicrinus yandelli</i> Owen and Shumard, 1850 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Owen1\" target=\"_blank\">[80]</a>, plesiotype, USNM S1337, note the absence of orals and the fixed PPCP and ACP that form the tegmen, along with interambulacral plates; E, F. a juvenile of the camerate <i>Elegantocrinus symmetricus</i> Wachsmuth and Springer, 1897 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Wachsmuth1\" target=\"_blank\">[81]</a>, plesiotype, USNM S1310, note the absence of orals and the fixed PPCP and ACP that form the tegmen, along with interambulacral plates; H, I. the plesiomorphic hybocrinid <i>Hybocrinus nitidus</i> Sinclair, 1945 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Sinclair1\" target=\"_blank\">[78]</a>, OU 9179, note the tiny PPCP plates homologous with those in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2C, D,G</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3A,B</a>, also note the coelomic canals through the radial plates at the arm bases; K, L. the cladid <i>Illemocrinus amphiatus</i> Eckert, 1987 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Eckert1\" target=\"_blank\">[82]</a>, paratype, ROM 45102, note that there are two PPCP at each interradial position, also note the coelomic canals through the radial plates at the arm bases; M, N. the neotenic camerate <i>Neoplatycrinus dilatatus</i> Wanner, 1916 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Wanner1\" target=\"_blank\">[83]</a>, SUI 134856, note that the tegmen is composed exclusively of the five PPCP plus a single ACP in each ray; O, P. the camerate <i>Marsupiocrinus stellatus</i> (Troost <i>in</i> Wood, 1909 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Wood1\" target=\"_blank\">[84]</a>), plesiotype, USNM S1296, note the absence of orals and the fixed PPCP and ACP that form the tegmen, along with interambulacral plates, distal ambulacra with moveable cover plates; Q, R. the camerate <i>Cyttarocrinus jewetti</i> Goldring, 1923 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Goldring1\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>, BMS E21032, which is plesiomorphic in having visible orals, note that the PPCP and ACP are not preserved having fallen away as based on other specimens, but the orals have small prong-like extensions over the peristome. Scale bars: 5 mm (A–R).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oral-region", "plates"], "article_id"=>847051, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Kammer", "Colin D. Sumrall", "Samuel Zamora", "William I. Ausich", "Bradley Deline"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Homologous_oral_region_plates_in_crinoids_/847051", "title"=>"Homologous oral-region plates in crinoids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-11 04:11:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276228"], "description"=>"*<p>IIP, integrated interradial plates ( = orals) in edrioasteroids.</p>**<p>PPCP, primary peristomial cover plates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peristomial", "systems"], "article_id"=>847059, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Kammer", "Colin D. Sumrall", "Samuel Zamora", "William I. Ausich", "Bradley Deline"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characters_of_Peristomial_Border_Systems_PBS_/847059", "title"=>"Characters of Peristomial Border Systems (PBS).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-11 04:11:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276227"], "description"=>"<p>Colored and uncolored views for plate comparison; color key as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone-0077989-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>. A, D. the edrioblastoid <i>Astrocystites ottawaensis</i> Whiteaves, 1897 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989#pone.0077989-Whiteaves2\" target=\"_blank\">[91]</a>, GSC 752, note the small orals encompassed within the larger “deltoid” plates formed by fused floor plates, and the suturing of the proximal ACP to the PPCP; B, C, E, F. isolated “deltoid” plates of <i>Astrocystites</i> sp. consisting of a small oral and floor plates fused together, B, E, oral view with peristome down, SUI 134871; C, F, lateral view with peristome upper left, SUI 134872. Scale bars: 5 mm (A, D), 2.5 mm (B, C, E, F).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["oral-region", "plates", "ordovician", "edrioblastoid"], "article_id"=>847058, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Thomas W. Kammer", "Colin D. Sumrall", "Samuel Zamora", "William I. Ausich", "Bradley Deline"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077989.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>108, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Homologous_oral_region_plates_in_the_Middle_Ordovician_edrioblastoid_Astrocystites_/847058", "title"=>"Homologous oral-region plates in the Middle Ordovician edrioblastoid <i>Astrocystites</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-11 04:11:49"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
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Relative Metric

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