Earliest Stone-Tipped Projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift Date to >279,000 Years Ago
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{"title"=>"Earliest stone-tipped projectiles from the Ethiopian rift date to >279,000 years ago", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yonatan", "last_name"=>"Sahle", "scopus_author_id"=>"37057841100"}, {"first_name"=>"W. Karl", "last_name"=>"Hutchings", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507697647"}, {"first_name"=>"David R.", "last_name"=>"Braun", "scopus_author_id"=>"23972180300"}, {"first_name"=>"Judith C.", "last_name"=>"Sealy", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701859033"}, {"first_name"=>"Leah E.", "last_name"=>"Morgan", "scopus_author_id"=>"26030604500"}, {"first_name"=>"Agazi", "last_name"=>"Negash", "scopus_author_id"=>"12767221900"}, {"first_name"=>"Balemwal", "last_name"=>"Atnafu", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508201600"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84893556398", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078092", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372309826", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24236011", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893556398"}, "id"=>"52451d6d-4eaa-3a13-a002-1a4aade9b840", "abstract"=>"Projectile weapons (i.e. those delivered from a distance) enhanced prehistoric hunting efficiency by enabling higher impact delivery and hunting of a broader range of animals while reducing confrontations with dangerous prey species. Projectiles therefore provided a significant advantage over thrusting spears. Composite projectile technologies are considered indicative of complex behavior and pivotal to the successful spread of Homo sapiens. Direct evidence for such projectiles is thus far unknown from >80,000 years ago. Data from velocity-dependent microfracture features, diagnostic damage patterns, and artifact shape reported here indicate that pointed stone artifacts from Ethiopia were used as projectile weapons (in the form of hafted javelin tips) as early as >279,000 years ago. In combination with the existing archaeological, fossil and genetic evidence, these data isolate eastern Africa as a source of modern cultures and biology.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/earliest-stonetipped-projectiles-ethiopian-rift-date-279000-years-ago", "reader_count"=>72, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>24, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>13, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>13}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>24}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279057", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279058", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279059", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279060"], "description"=>"<div><p>Projectile weapons (i.e. those delivered from a distance) enhanced prehistoric hunting efficiency by enabling higher impact delivery and hunting of a broader range of animals while reducing confrontations with dangerous prey species. Projectiles therefore provided a significant advantage over thrusting spears. Composite projectile technologies are considered indicative of complex behavior and pivotal to the successful spread of <i>Homo sapiens</i>. Direct evidence for such projectiles is thus far unknown from >80,000 years ago. Data from velocity-dependent microfracture features, diagnostic damage patterns, and artifact shape reported here indicate that pointed stone artifacts from Ethiopia were used as projectile weapons (in the form of hafted javelin tips) as early as >279,000 years ago. In combination with the existing archaeological, fossil and genetic evidence, these data isolate eastern Africa as a source of modern cultures and biology.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stone-tipped", "projectiles", "ethiopian", "rift", "years"], "article_id"=>849312, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Yonatan Sahle", "W. Karl Hutchings", "David R. Braun", "Judith C. Sealy", "Leah E. Morgan", "Agazi Negash", "Balemwal Atnafu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Earliest_Stone_Tipped_Projectiles_from_the_Ethiopian_Rift_Date_to_gt_279_000_Years_Ago_/849312", "title"=>"Earliest Stone-Tipped Projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift Date to >279,000 Years Ago", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:30:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279047"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) A map showing the Gademotta ridge and major archaeological localities: the Gademotta type-site and the Kulkuletti area. Inset map shows the relative location of key later Middle Pleistocene sites in the Ethiopian rift, namely (1) Herto, (2) Gademotta, and (3) Omo Kibish. (<b>B</b>) A revised composite stratigraphic section of the Gademotta Fm. and the placement of major archaeological sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stratigraphy", "gademotta"], "article_id"=>849302, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Yonatan Sahle", "W. Karl Hutchings", "David R. Braun", "Judith C. Sealy", "Leah E. Morgan", "Agazi Negash", "Balemwal Atnafu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_and_stratigraphy_of_the_Gademotta_Fm_/849302", "title"=>"Location and stratigraphy of the Gademotta Fm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:30:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279053"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>, <b>B</b>) fracture wings on transverse fractures; (<b>C</b>, <b>D</b>) fracture wings on burin-like fractures; (<b>E</b>) impact fractures on two fracture fronts on the distal portion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gademotta", "pointed", "artifacts", "exhibiting", "micro-", "macrofracture", "indicative", "projectile"], "article_id"=>849308, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Yonatan Sahle", "W. Karl Hutchings", "David R. Braun", "Judith C. Sealy", "Leah E. Morgan", "Agazi Negash", "Balemwal Atnafu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_sample_of_Gademotta_pointed_artifacts_exhibiting_micro_and_macrofracture_features_indicative_of_projectile_weaponry_/849308", "title"=>"A sample of Gademotta pointed artifacts exhibiting micro- and macrofracture features indicative of projectile weaponry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:30:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279054"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison established by experimental work using obsidian raw material with a distortional wave velocity (<i>C</i><sub>2</sub>) of 3865 m/s <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092#pone.0078092-Hutchings1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>. Boxes represent inter-quartile ranges; the horizontal lines inside the boxes represent the median values; the tails represent the non-outlier range.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["instantaneous", "fracture", "velocities"], "article_id"=>849309, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Yonatan Sahle", "W. Karl Hutchings", "David R. Braun", "Judith C. Sealy", "Leah E. Morgan", "Agazi Negash", "Balemwal Atnafu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Box_and_Whisker_plots_of_instantaneous_fracture_velocities_for_various_impact_types_/849309", "title"=>"Box-and-Whisker plots of instantaneous fracture velocities for various impact types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:30:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279055"], "description"=>"<p>TCSA and TCSP plots of pointed pieces from experimental spear tips <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092#pone.0078092-Shea3\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a> (Exprm); Klasies River main site MSA I <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092#pone.0078092-Wurz1\" target=\"_blank\">[32]</a> (KRM); Gademotta (GDM). Solid dots represent outlier values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tcsa", "tcsp"], "article_id"=>849310, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Yonatan Sahle", "W. Karl Hutchings", "David R. Braun", "Judith C. Sealy", "Leah E. Morgan", "Agazi Negash", "Balemwal Atnafu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Box_and_Whisker_plots_of_TCSA_and_TCSP_comparisons_/849310", "title"=>"Box-and-Whisker plots of TCSA and TCSP comparisons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:30:31"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[605, 959, 1140, 1273, 1412, 1552, 1709, 1830, 1959, 2077, 2241, 2360, 2456]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physical anthropology", "average_usage"=>[425, 580, 768, 980, 1109, 1229, 1353, 1449, 1554, 1650, 1702, 1817, 1923]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Geographical locations", "average_usage"=>[263, 456, 571, 673, 776, 866, 955, 1040, 1132, 1217, 1310, 1391, 1454]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Archaeology", "average_usage"=>[739, 1366, 1510, 2134, 2342, 2585, 2717, 2803, 2931, 3109, 3521, 3814, 4002, 4159]}]}
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