Forever Love: The Hitherto Earliest Record of Copulating Insects from the Middle Jurassic of China
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{"title"=>"Forever love: The hitherto earliest record of copulating insects from the Middle Jurassic of China", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Shu", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"36052002300"}, {"first_name"=>"Chungkun", "last_name"=>"Shih", "scopus_author_id"=>"13406849900"}, {"first_name"=>"Chen", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55520505900"}, {"first_name"=>"Hong", "last_name"=>"Pang", "scopus_author_id"=>"15061854700"}, {"first_name"=>"Dong", "last_name"=>"Ren", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202034641"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"2013100280", "pmid"=>"24223138", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078188", "pui"=>"372116249", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84892428280", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892428280"}, "id"=>"72192232-c848-3078-9170-fc7c11f8fcff", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Mating behaviors have been widely studied for extant insects. However, cases of mating individuals are particularly rare in the fossil record of insects, and most of them involved preservation in amber while only in rare cases found in compression fossils. This considerably limits our knowledge of mating position and genitalia orientation during the Mesozoic, and hinders our understanding of the evolution of mating behaviors in this major component of modern ecosystems.\\n\\nPRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we report a pair of copulating froghoppers, Anthoscytina perpetua sp. nov., referable to the Procercopidae, from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China. They exhibit belly-to-belly mating position as preserved, with male's aedeagus inserting into the female's bursa copulatrix. Abdominal segments 8 to 9 of male are disarticulated suggesting these segments were twisted and flexed during mating. Due to potential taphonomic effect, we cannot rule out that they might have taken side-by-side position, as in extant froghoppers. Genitalia of male and female, based on paratypes, show symmetric structures.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings, consistent with those of extant froghoppers, indicate froghoppers' genitalic symmetry and mating position have remained static for over 165 million years.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/forever-love-hitherto-earliest-record-copulating-insects-middle-jurassic-china", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>10}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269899"], "description"=>"<p>A-G photographs of paratype specimens: <b>A</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010014, male genitalia, dorsal view. <b>B</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010247c male genitalia, ventrolateral view. <b>C</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010236, male genitalia, dorsolateral view. <b>D</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010006p, female genitalia, dorsal view. <b>E</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010035p, female genitalia, lateral view. <b>F</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010042, female genitalia, lateral view. <b>G</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010046p, female genitalia, lateral view. <b>H</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010046p, interpretative drawing of female genitalia in G. teg., tergite; atb., anal tube; ste., sternite; vlf., valvifer; ov., valvula of ovipositor. Scale bars  = 1 mm for all.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shih", "et"], "article_id"=>842945, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Shu Li", "Chungkun Shih", "Chen Wang", "Hong Pang", "Dong Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078188.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anthoscytina_perpetua_Li_Shih_et_Ren_sp_nov_/842945", "title"=>"<i>Anthoscytina perpetua</i> Li, Shih et Ren, sp. nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 02:55:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269901"], "description"=>"<p>Morphological data in extant and fossil taxa have been considered, as well as phylogenetic scheme of the Clypeata proposed by Wang et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078188#pone.0078188-Wang2\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>. <b>A</b>, <i>Anthoscytina aphthosa</i> Ren, Yin and Dou, 1998 from the Early Cretaceous of Yixian Formation, China. <b>B</b>, <i>Anthoscytina perpetua</i> Li, Shih et Ren, sp. nov. from the Middle Jurassic of Jiulongshan Formation, China. <b>C</b>, <i>Jiania gracila</i> Wang et Szwedo, 2012 from the Middle Jurassic of Jiulongshan Formation,China. <b>D</b>, <i>Cercopion reticulata</i> Hamilton, 1990 from the Early Cretaceous of Santana Formation, Brazil. Scale bars  = 2 mm for all.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstruction", "phylogenetic", "relationships"], "article_id"=>842947, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Shu Li", "Chungkun Shih", "Chen Wang", "Hong Pang", "Dong Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078188.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tentative_reconstruction_of_phylogenetic_relationships_within_the_Cercopoidea_/842947", "title"=>"Tentative reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within the Cercopoidea.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 02:55:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269905"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, froghoppers in copulation, photo credit: Jason Shih. <b>B–F</b>, <i>Cosmoscarta heros</i> (Fabricius). <b>B</b>, lateral habitus. <b>C</b>, ovipositor ventral view. <b>D</b>, male genitalia, dorsal view. <b>E</b>, male genitalia, ventral view. <b>F</b>, aedeagus, dorsal view. pyg., pygofer; ov., valvula of ovipositor; atb., anal tube; aed., aedeagus; gsu., gonstylus; gpa., genital plates; phb., phallobase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genitalia", "extant"], "article_id"=>842951, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Shu Li", "Chungkun Shih", "Chen Wang", "Hong Pang", "Dong Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078188.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mating_position_and_genitalia_of_representative_extant_froghoppers_/842951", "title"=>"Mating position and genitalia of representative extant froghoppers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 02:55:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269881"], "description"=>"<p>A–B, holotype. (CNU-HEM-NN2012002 p, male, on the right) and allotype (CNU-HEM-NN2012003 p, female, on the left). <b>A</b>, photograph of habitus. <b>B</b>, interpretative drawing. <b>C–D</b>, paratype. CNU-HEM-NN2010003 p. <b>C</b>, photograph of antenna, under alcohol. <b>D</b>, photograph of hindleg, under alcohol. <b>E–F</b>, holotype. (CNU-HEM-NN2012002 c, male, on the left) and allotype (CNU-HEM-NN2012003 c, female, on the right). <b>E</b>, photograph of habitus. <b>F</b>, photograph of male and female genitalia in copulation, under alcohol. <b>G</b>, interpretative drawing of male and female genitalia in copulation. teg., tergite; ste., sternite; atb., anal tube. Scale bars  = 1 mm for all.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shih", "et"], "article_id"=>842936, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Shu Li", "Chungkun Shih", "Chen Wang", "Hong Pang", "Dong Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078188.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anthoscytina_perpetua_Li_Shih_et_Ren_sp_nov_/842936", "title"=>"<i>Anthoscytina perpetua</i> Li, Shih et Ren, sp. nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 02:55:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269874"], "description"=>"<p>A–D, holotype. male, on the right (CNU-HEM-NN2012002 p) and allotype. female, on the left (CNU-HEM-NN2012003 p). <b>A</b>, photograph of habitus. <b>B</b>, 3-D ecological reconstruction. <b>C</b>, photograph of male and female genitalia in copulation, under alcohol. <b>D</b>, interpretative drawing of C. <b>E</b>, paratype. CNU-HEM-NN2010003, interpretative drawings of venations of the forewing and hind wing. pyg., pygofer; atb., anal tube; phb., phallobase; cc., corpus connective; pht., phallotrema; sp., sclerotized process; gy., gonapophyses. Scale bars  = 1 mm (<b>A, C, D, E</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shih", "et"], "article_id"=>842929, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Shu Li", "Chungkun Shih", "Chen Wang", "Hong Pang", "Dong Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078188.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anthoscytina_perpetua_Li_Shih_et_Ren_sp_nov_/842929", "title"=>"<i>Anthoscytina perpetua</i> Li, Shih et Ren, sp. nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 02:55:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269886"], "description"=>"<p><b>A–I</b>, photographs of paratype specimens: <b>A</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010014, male. <b>B</b>, hind leg with a lateral spine, under alcohol, CNU-HEM-NN2010014. <b>C</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010247, male. <b>D</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010236, male. <b>E</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010003, female. <b>F</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010006, female. <b>G</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010035p, female. <b>H</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010046p, female. <b>I</b>, CNU-HEM-NN2010042, female. Scale bars  = 2 mm for all.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["shih", "et"], "article_id"=>842941, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Shu Li", "Chungkun Shih", "Chen Wang", "Hong Pang", "Dong Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078188.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anthoscytina_perpetua_Li_Shih_et_Ren_sp_nov_/842941", "title"=>"<i>Anthoscytina perpetua</i> Li, Shih et Ren, sp. nov.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 02:55:07"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 428]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Veterinary science", "average_usage"=>[313, 571, 709, 825, 944, 1048, 1145, 1261, 1354, 1434, 1524, 1599, 1684]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[296, 488, 620, 717, 828, 938, 1038, 1130, 1230, 1328, 1414, 1502, 1592]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geology", "average_usage"=>[338, 522, 664, 773, 911, 1046, 1140, 1236, 1318, 1410, 1496, 1596, 1683, 1755]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[253, 430]}]}
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