The Ontogeny of Bumblebee Flight Trajectories: From Naïve Explorers to Experienced Foragers
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{"title"=>"The ontogeny of bumblebee flight trajectories: From Naïve explorers to experienced foragers", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Juliet L.", "last_name"=>"Osborne", "scopus_author_id"=>"7203032221"}, {"first_name"=>"Alan", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"55740296700"}, {"first_name"=>"Suzanne J.", "last_name"=>"Clark", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403149953"}, {"first_name"=>"Don R.", "last_name"=>"Reynolds", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401431104"}, {"first_name"=>"Mandy C.", "last_name"=>"Barron", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101884248"}, {"first_name"=>"Ka S.", "last_name"=>"Lim", "scopus_author_id"=>"54786660000"}, {"first_name"=>"Andy M.", "last_name"=>"Reynolds", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201478285"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893193627", "pmid"=>"24265707", "sgr"=>"84893193627", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078681", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\n1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372232295"}, "id"=>"c25837ab-adb2-3c59-a793-021c0f9c5852", "abstract"=>"Understanding strategies used by animals to explore their landscape is essential to predict how they exploit patchy resources, and consequently how they are likely to respond to changes in resource distribution. Social bees provide a good model for this and, whilst there are published descriptions of their behaviour on initial learning flights close to the colony, it is still unclear how bees find floral resources over hundreds of metres and how these flights become directed foraging trips. We investigated the spatial ecology of exploration by radar tracking bumblebees, and comparing the flight trajectories of bees with differing experience. The bees left the colony within a day or two of eclosion and flew in complex loops of ever-increasing size around the colony, exhibiting Lévy-flight characteristics constituting an optimal searching strategy. This mathematical pattern can be used to predict how animals exploring individually might exploit a patchy landscape. The bees' groundspeed, maximum displacement from the nest and total distance travelled on a trip increased significantly with experience. More experienced bees flew direct paths, predominantly flying upwind on their outward trips although forage was available in all directions. The flights differed from those of nave honeybees: they occurred at an earlier age, showed more complex looping, and resulted in earlier returns of pollen to the colony. In summary bumblebees learn to find home and food rapidly, though phases of orientation, learning and searching were not easily separable, suggesting some multi-tasking.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ontogeny-bumblebee-flight-trajectories-na%C3%AFve-explorers-experienced-foragers", "reader_count"=>70, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277820"], "description"=>"<p>Each shows median, 25% and 75% quartiles and range (N = 28). x axis: Group 1 = 1<sup>st</sup> trip, Group 2 = 2<sup>nd</sup>–3<sup>rd</sup> trips, Group 3 = >6 trips. A) Maximum displacement from the colony (m); B) Total distance travelled during tracked trip (m); C) Average ground speed (ms<sup>−1</sup>) calculated for each tracked step where time gap was less than 15 s (N.B. for this graph N = 38 as incomplete tracks are included; see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681#pone.0078681.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>); D) Area (m<sup>−2</sup>) of convex hull polygon encompassing all radar signals for a tracked trip; E) Interquartile range (degrees) of bearings of all radar signals for a trip.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["whisker", "characterizing", "flights", "bees", "differing"], "article_id"=>848300, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juliet L. Osborne", "Alan Smith", "Suzanne J. Clark", "Don R. Reynolds", "Mandy C. Barron", "Ka S. Lim", "Andy M. Reynolds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Box_and_whisker_plots_for_key_parameters_characterizing_flights_of_bees_with_differing_experience_/848300", "title"=>"Box and whisker plots for key parameters characterizing flights of bees with differing experience.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:59:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277921", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277922", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277924", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277925"], "description"=>"<div><p>Understanding strategies used by animals to explore their landscape is essential to predict how they exploit patchy resources, and consequently how they are likely to respond to changes in resource distribution. Social bees provide a good model for this and, whilst there are published descriptions of their behaviour on initial learning flights close to the colony, it is still unclear how bees find floral resources over hundreds of metres and how these flights become directed foraging trips. We investigated the spatial ecology of exploration by radar tracking bumblebees, and comparing the flight trajectories of bees with differing experience. The bees left the colony within a day or two of eclosion and flew in complex loops of ever-increasing size around the colony, exhibiting Lévy-flight characteristics constituting an optimal searching strategy. This mathematical pattern can be used to predict how animals exploring individually might exploit a patchy landscape. The bees’ groundspeed, maximum displacement from the nest and total distance travelled on a trip increased significantly with experience. More experienced bees flew direct paths, predominantly flying upwind on their outward trips although forage was available in all directions. The flights differed from those of naïve honeybees: they occurred at an earlier age, showed more complex looping, and resulted in earlier returns of pollen to the colony. In summary bumblebees learn to find home and food rapidly, though phases of orientation, learning and searching were not easily separable, suggesting some multi-tasking.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ontogeny", "bumblebee", "explorers"], "article_id"=>848359, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juliet L. Osborne", "Alan Smith", "Suzanne J. Clark", "Don R. Reynolds", "Mandy C. Barron", "Ka S. Lim", "Andy M. Reynolds"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Ontogeny_of_Bumblebee_Flight_Trajectories_From_Na_239_ve_Explorers_to_Experienced_Foragers_/848359", "title"=>"The Ontogeny of Bumblebee Flight Trajectories: From Naïve Explorers to Experienced Foragers", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:59:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277816"], "description"=>"<p>The sequence and directions of each flight can be seen in detail in the video files in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681#pone.0078681.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a>. Origin is location of the colony (marked with grey filled circle). Axes show distance from colony (m). ◊ = Radar fixes, joined with black line. A – E) Flights of five individuals on their first flights; F) Bee on third flight from colony; G) Experienced forager demonstrating directed flight away from colony and directed flight in return. In <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681#pone-0078681-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1D</a>, for the purposes of Lévy flight analyses, significant turns (○) are deemed to arise at the furthest reaches of the loops.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ontogeny", "bumblebee"], "article_id"=>848296, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juliet L. Osborne", "Alan Smith", "Suzanne J. Clark", "Don R. Reynolds", "Mandy C. Barron", "Ka S. Lim", "Andy M. Reynolds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_the_ontogeny_of_bumblebee_flights_/848296", "title"=>"Examples of the ontogeny of bumblebee flights.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:59:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277832"], "description"=>"<p>Visual = arcs recorded by observer at start of flight. Radar = arcs recorded at the start and end of the flight from the track. Number of tracks (n) vary because arcing at the beginning was identified in all tracks (N = 38) and arcing at the end for just complete tracks (N = 28).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tracked", "flights", "behaviour"], "article_id"=>848303, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juliet L. Osborne", "Alan Smith", "Suzanne J. Clark", "Don R. Reynolds", "Mandy C. Barron", "Ka S. Lim", "Andy M. Reynolds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_number_of_tracked_flights_in_each_category_of_experience_that_display_8216_Turn_Back_and_Look_8217_TBL_behaviour_or_arcing_/848303", "title"=>"Summary of the number of tracked flights in each category of experience that display ‘Turn Back and Look’ (TBL) behaviour or arcing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:59:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277831"], "description"=>"<p>A) Proportion of loops with lengths (solid-line) together with the fitted inverse power-law distribution (dashed-line). The length of the loop is the straight-line distance from the nest to a significant turn (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681#pone-0078681-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1D</a>). A straight-line on the log-log plot is indicative of an inverse power-law. Here inverse power-law is evident over lengths ranging about 10 and about 120 m. B) First significant digit distributions for the observed loop lengths (histograms) and the fitted inverse power-law distribution (star) c) The net root mean square value of the running sum, and the power spectrum of . is plotted as a function of elapsed time , measured from the moment at which the radar first detected each released bee. The dashed line with constitutes a linear least squares fit to the data (correlation coefficient, ) . A straight-line on the log-log plot is indicative of power-law scaling. Here power-law scaling is evident over times ranging about 10 and about 100 s. D) The ensemble-average of the power-spectrum of the time series . The dashed line with constitutes a linear least squares fit to the data (correlation coefficient, ).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tracks", "levy"], "article_id"=>848302, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juliet L. Osborne", "Alan Smith", "Suzanne J. Clark", "Don R. Reynolds", "Mandy C. Barron", "Ka S. Lim", "Andy M. Reynolds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_tracks_for_Levy_flight_characteristics_/848302", "title"=>"Analysis of tracks for Levy flight characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:59:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277819"], "description"=>"<p>A) Group 1: bees on first trips (n = 14); B) Group 2: bees on 2<sup>nd</sup> & 3<sup>rd</sup> trips (n = 6); C) Group 3: experienced bees that have flown over 6 trips (n = 8). For detail of each flight see videos in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681#pone.0078681.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a> and maps in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681#pone.0078681.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S3</a>. D) Circular histogram of mean wind directions (in degrees) recorded during each tracked flight, demonstrating the wind was usually from the West South West during the study (blue arrow = circular mean). Numbers on outside of circle indicate number in each bin. Means were calculated from wind direction records taken at 10 second intervals at each of five meteorological stations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tracked", "flights", "overlaid"], "article_id"=>848299, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juliet L. Osborne", "Alan Smith", "Suzanne J. Clark", "Don R. Reynolds", "Mandy C. Barron", "Ka S. Lim", "Andy M. Reynolds"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078681.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_of_radar_tracked_flights_complete_overlaid_on_the_landscape_/848299", "title"=>"Plots of radar tracked flights (complete) overlaid on the landscape.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:59:44"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[261, 444, 554, 655, 748, 834, 923, 1004, 1089, 1170, 1244, 1315, 1380]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[284, 458, 579, 688, 782, 879, 957, 1048, 1126, 1204, 1280, 1357, 1415]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[254, 440, 558, 675, 785, 883, 972, 1061, 1154, 1248, 1336, 1414, 1489]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Equipment", "average_usage"=>[246, 440, 558, 647, 746, 842, 937, 1028, 1116, 1191, 1253, 1348, 1420]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}]}
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