March of the Titans: The Locomotor Capabilities of Sauropod Dinosaurs
Publication Date
October 30, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
William Irvin Sellers, Lee Margetts, Rodolfo Aníbal Coria & Phillip Lars Manning
Volume
8
Issue
10
Pages
e78733
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0078733
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24348896
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864407
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24348896
Web of Science
000326334500130
Scopus
84897518607
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/march-titans-locomotor-capabilities-sauropod-dinosaurs
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{"title"=>"March of the titans: The locomotor capabilities of sauropod dinosaurs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"William Irvin", "last_name"=>"Sellers", "scopus_author_id"=>"35551702000"}, {"first_name"=>"Lee", "last_name"=>"Margetts", "scopus_author_id"=>"25636044400"}, {"first_name"=>"Rodolfo An", "last_name"=>"Ébal Coria", "scopus_author_id"=>"56688657700"}, {"first_name"=>"Phillip Lars", "last_name"=>"Manning", "scopus_author_id"=>"22433379300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"604820806", "pmid"=>"24348896", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078733", "sgr"=>"84897518607", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897518607"}, "id"=>"c3814773-fb82-38a5-8192-b0f4e1e659fc", "abstract"=>"Sauropod dinosaurs are the largest terrestrial vertebrate to have lived on Earth. This size must have posed special challenges for the musculoskeletal system. Scaling theory shows that body mass and hence the loads that must be overcome increases with body size more rapidly than either the ability of the muscles to generate force, or the ability of the skeleton to support these loads. Here we demonstrate how one of the very largest sauropods, Argentinosaurus huinculensis (40 metres long, weighing 83 tonnes), may have moved. A musculoskeletal model was generated using data captured by laser scanning a mounted skeleton and assigning muscle properties based on comparative data from living animals. Locomotion is generated using forward dynamic simula- tion to calculate the accelerations produced by the muscle forces, coupled with machine learning techniques to find a control pattern that minimises metabolic cost. The simulation demonstrates that at such vast body size, joint range of motion needs to be restricted to allow sufficient force generation for an achievable muscle mass. However when this is done, a perfectly plausible gait can be generated relatively easily. Whilst this model repre- sents the best current simulation of the gait of these giant animals, it is likely that there are as yet unknown mechanical mechanisms, possibly based on passive elastic structures that should be incorporated to increase the efficiency of the animal9s locomotion. It is certainly the case that these would need to be incorporated into the model to properly assess the full locomotor capabilities of the animal.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/march-titans-locomotor-capabilities-sauropod-dinosaurs", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>23, "Neuroscience"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>23}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Mexico"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4365973"], "description"=>"<p>A, side, and B, front view of the unscaled hull model. C, side, and D, front view of the scaled model with extra mass in the thigh and forearm segments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836719, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Orthographic_views_of_the_hulled_segments_created_using_the_POVRAY_ray_tracer_www_povray_org_/836719", "title"=>"Orthographic views of the hulled segments created using the POVRAY ray-tracer (www.povray.org).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366024"], "description"=>"<p>Data from Wareing et</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836721, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Charts_showing_the_distribution_of_muscle_mass_in_three_species_of_cursorial_quadruped_/836721", "title"=>"Charts showing the distribution of muscle mass in three species of cursorial quadruped.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366051"], "description"=>"<p>Charts showing the frequency distributions of the (extension/fibre length) ratio for a variety of muscles and vertebrate species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836722, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Charts_showing_the_frequency_distributions_of_the_extension_fibre_length_ratio_for_a_variety_of_muscles_and_vertebrate_species_/836722", "title"=>"Charts showing the frequency distributions of the (extension/fibre length) ratio for a variety of muscles and vertebrate species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366072"], "description"=>"<p>Diagram showing how the minimum ankle torque required to support an animal can be calculated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836723, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagram_showing_how_the_minimum_ankle_torque_required_to_support_an_animal_can_be_calculated_/836723", "title"=>"Diagram showing how the minimum ankle torque required to support an animal can be calculated.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366093"], "description"=>"<p>Chart showing the performance characteristics of asynchronous versus synchronous genetic algorithm implementations on varying numbers of CPU cores.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836724, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chart_showing_the_performance_characteristics_of_asynchronous_versus_synchronous_genetic_algorithm_implementations_on_varying_numbers_of_CPU_cores_/836724", "title"=>"Chart showing the performance characteristics of asynchronous versus synchronous genetic algorithm implementations on varying numbers of CPU cores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366111"], "description"=>"<p>1, best estimate range of motion; 2, elephant functional range of motion; 3, restricted ankle range of motion; 4, muscle mass in model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836725, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Charts_showing_the_minimum_extensor_muscle_mass_required_1_2_3_and_the_muscle_mass_available_4_around_individual_joints_for_the_different_joint_range_of_motion_cases_/836725", "title"=>"Charts showing the minimum extensor muscle mass required (1,2,3) and the muscle mass available (4) around individual joints for the different joint range of motion cases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366141"], "description"=>"<p>Charts showing the cost of locomotion and walking speeds for the best simulations generated with different gait cycle times.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836728, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Charts_showing_the_cost_of_locomotion_and_walking_speeds_for_the_best_simulations_generated_with_different_gait_cycle_times_/836728", "title"=>"Charts showing the cost of locomotion and walking speeds for the best simulations generated with different gait cycle times.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366153"], "description"=>"<p>Simulated trackways generated by spatially summing the impulse between the foot contacts and the substrate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836729, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.g012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simulated_trackways_generated_by_spatially_summing_the_impulse_between_the_foot_contacts_and_the_substrate_/836729", "title"=>"Simulated trackways generated by spatially summing the impulse between the foot contacts and the substrate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366183"], "description"=>"<p>The locations of the contact spheres attached to the autopodia of the model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836731, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_locations_of_the_contact_spheres_attached_to_the_autopodia_of_the_model_/836731", "title"=>"The locations of the contact spheres attached to the autopodia of the model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366165"], "description"=>"<p>Segmental mass properties of the model as posed in the reference position.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836732, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Segmental_mass_properties_of_the_model_as_posed_in_the_reference_position_/836732", "title"=>"Segmental mass properties of the model as posed in the reference position.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366216"], "description"=>"<p>Joint ranges of motion with respect to the reference pose.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836733, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.t006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Joint_ranges_of_motion_with_respect_to_the_reference_pose_/836733", "title"=>"Joint ranges of motion with respect to the reference pose.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366228"], "description"=>"<p>Muscle properties for each of the joint range of motion conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836734, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.t007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Muscle_properties_for_each_of_the_joint_range_of_motion_conditions_/836734", "title"=>"Muscle properties for each of the joint range of motion conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4366192"], "description"=>"<p>Origin and insertion positions of the muscles used in the model in the reference pose.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Sauropod Dinosaurs March", "Locomotor Capabilities", "Titan"], "article_id"=>836735, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["William Irvin Sellers", "Lee Margetts", "Rodolfo Aníbal Coria", "Phillip Lars Manning"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078733.t004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Origin_and_insertion_positions_of_the_muscles_used_in_the_model_in_the_reference_pose_/836735", "title"=>"Origin and insertion positions of the muscles used in the model in the reference pose.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-30 20:58:11"}

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