Biological Diversity in the Patent System
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{"title"=>"Biological diversity in the patent system", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Oldham", "scopus_author_id"=>"26533255500"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Hall", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197506685"}, {"first_name"=>"Oscar", "last_name"=>"Forero", "scopus_author_id"=>"14121110500"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24265714", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893203210", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372232302", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078737", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84893203210"}, "id"=>"717d8972-cbdd-3a89-a10a-04454297bc25", "abstract"=>"Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8-1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore at the World Intellectual Property Organization.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/biological-diversity-patent-system", "reader_count"=>89, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4, "Energy"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>19, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>19}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Taiwan"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Paraguay"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>14}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276771"], "description"=>"<p>This figure displays a Fruchterman-Reingold representation of the co-occurrence linkages between top genera appearing in patent claims with node size based on degree. Green indicates genera falling within Plantae. Network visualization performed in Gephi.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genera"], "article_id"=>847472, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Paul Oldham", "Stephen Hall", "Oscar Forero"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078737.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Co_occurrence_Network_of_Top_Genera_in_Patent_Claims_/847472", "title"=>"Co-occurrence Network of Top Genera in Patent Claims.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 02:58:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276787"], "description"=>"<p>This figure is based on available distribution data from GBIF. Note that GBIF data may be incomplete.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patents"], "article_id"=>847475, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Paul Oldham", "Stephen Hall", "Oscar Forero"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078737.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Global_Distribution_of_Species_in_Patents_by_Kingdom_/847475", "title"=>"Global Distribution of Species in Patents by Kingdom.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 02:58:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276772"], "description"=>"<p>A. Trends by patent applications and grants based on patent kind codes A (applications) and B (grants) adjusted for US practice. Note that prior to 2001 the United States only published patent documents when granted. This produces a reporting effect in the form of a sharp spike in patent applications in 2001. B. Species appearing in patents including the number of publications (publications) where a species appears and the number of occurrences of a species name in the patent claims (claims). The data is ranked on occurrences of a species in patent claims as a measure of the intensity of activity for the species. Note that data for food crops includes common names (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078737#pone.0078737.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Supporting information S1</a>). C. Patent applicants harmonized using EEE-PPAT 2012 (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078737#pone.0078737.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Supporting information S1</a>). Data does not address mergers and acquisitions. D. Technology area based on International Patent Classification, 8th edition, sub-class codes. Sub-class descriptions have been edited for presentation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>847473, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Paul Oldham", "Stephen Hall", "Oscar Forero"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078737.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trends_in_Patent_Activity_for_Biodiversity_/847473", "title"=>"Trends in Patent Activity for Biodiversity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 02:58:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276825", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276826"], "description"=>"<div><p>Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the <i>Global Names Index</i> (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 <i>Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization</i> and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore at the World Intellectual Property Organization.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>847511, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Paul Oldham", "Stephen Hall", "Oscar Forero"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078737.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078737.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biological_Diversity_in_the_Patent_System_/847511", "title"=>"Biological Diversity in the Patent System", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 02:58:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1276770"], "description"=>"<p>Species appearing in patents grouped onto the major kingdoms based on the resolved species names in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078737#pone.0078737.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Workbook S1</a>, table S2.1 excluding unresolved abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patents"], "article_id"=>847471, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Paul Oldham", "Stephen Hall", "Oscar Forero"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078737.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Species_in_Patents_by_Kingdom_/847471", "title"=>"Species in Patents by Kingdom.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 02:58:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[290, 478, 601, 716, 816, 914, 1016, 1112, 1203, 1285, 1373, 1451, 1516]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[284, 491, 620, 738, 843, 945, 1043, 1137, 1225, 1315, 1400, 1479, 1555]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Plant science", "average_usage"=>[269, 451, 577, 699, 812, 922, 1019, 1126, 1225, 1309, 1404, 1493, 1563]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[284, 475, 603, 722, 826, 928, 1026, 1129, 1225, 1310, 1390, 1468, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Conservation science", "average_usage"=>[390, 618, 766, 904, 1030, 1153, 1268, 1391, 1487, 1591, 1685, 1767, 1865]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[278, 463, 587, 692, 804, 897, 984, 1068, 1165, 1254, 1339, 1429, 1490]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}]}
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