Trabecular Bone Structure Correlates with Hand Posture and Use in Hominoids
Publication Date
November 14, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Zewdi J. Tsegai, Tracy L. Kivell, Thomas Gross, N. Huynh Nguyen, et al
Volume
8
Issue
11
Pages
e78781
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0078781
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244359
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828321
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24244359
Web of Science
000327143800017
Scopus
84893636728
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/trabecular-bone-structure-correlates-hand-posture-hominoids
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Trabecular bone structure correlates with hand posture and use in hominoids", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zewdi J.", "last_name"=>"Tsegai", "scopus_author_id"=>"56029575800"}, {"first_name"=>"Tracy L.", "last_name"=>"Kivell", "scopus_author_id"=>"15843429500"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Gross", "scopus_author_id"=>"56494175100"}, {"first_name"=>"N.", "last_name"=>"Huynh Nguyen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56020848800"}, {"first_name"=>"Dieter H.", "last_name"=>"Pahr", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602344151"}, {"first_name"=>"Jeroen B.", "last_name"=>"Smaers", "scopus_author_id"=>"35103506500"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew M.", "last_name"=>"Skinner", "scopus_author_id"=>"35724424000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84893636728", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078781", "pui"=>"372334627", "pmid"=>"24244359", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893636728", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"c9a13574-f599-32aa-ba83-19954a98ebf7", "abstract"=>"Bone is capable of adapting during life in response to stress. Therefore, variation in locomotor and manipulative behaviours across extant hominoids may be reflected in differences in trabecular bone structure. The hand is a promising region for trabecular analysis, as it is the direct contact between the individual and the environment and joint positions at peak loading vary amongst extant hominoids. Building upon traditional volume of interest-based analyses, we apply a whole-epiphysis analytical approach using high-resolution microtomographic scans of the hominoid third metacarpal to investigate whether trabecular structure reflects differences in hand posture and loading in knuckle-walking (Gorilla, Pan), suspensory (Pongo, Hylobates and Symphalangus) and manipulative (Homo) taxa. Additionally, a comparative phylogenetic method was used to analyse rates of evolutionary changes in trabecular parameters. Results demonstrate that trabecular bone volume distribution and regions of greatest stiffness (i.e., Young's modulus) correspond with predicted loading of the hand in each behavioural category. In suspensory and manipulative taxa, regions of high bone volume and greatest stiffness are concentrated on the palmar or distopalmar regions of the metacarpal head, whereas knuckle-walking taxa show greater bone volume and stiffness throughout the head, and particularly in the dorsal region; patterns that correspond with the highest predicted joint reaction forces. Trabecular structure in knuckle-walking taxa is characterised by high bone volume fraction and a high degree of anisotropy in contrast to the suspensory brachiators. Humans, in which the hand is used primarily for manipulation, have a low bone volume fraction and a variable degree of anisotropy. Finally, when trabecular parameters are mapped onto a molecular-based phylogeny, we show that the rates of change in trabecular structure vary across the hominoid clade. Our results support a link between inferred behaviour and trabecular structure in extant hominoids that can be informative for reconstructing behaviour in fossil primates.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/trabecular-bone-structure-correlates-hand-posture-hominoids", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84893636728"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84893636728?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84893636728&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84893636728&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84893636728", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84893636728", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84893636728", "dc:title"=>"Trabecular bone structure correlates with hand posture and use in hominoids", "dc:creator"=>"Tsegai Z.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"8", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"11", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2013-11-14", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"14 November 2013", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078781", "citedby-count"=>"48", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"UCL", "affiliation-city"=>"London", "affiliation-country"=>"United Kingdom"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology", "affiliation-city"=>"Leipzig", "affiliation-country"=>"Germany"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24244359", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e78781", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0078781", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Twitter

Counter

  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"88", "xml_views"=>"11", "html_views"=>"532"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2013", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"210"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"264"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"25", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"329"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"334"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"296"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"297"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"201"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"183"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"140"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"136"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"142"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"80"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"126"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"70"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"105"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"110"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"61"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"74"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"29", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"9"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280463"], "description"=>"1<p>Sex specific mean body mass (F-M). Body masses from Smith and Jungers <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781#pone.0078781-Smith1\" target=\"_blank\">[49]</a>.</p>2<p>The relative resolution of the trabecular scan given here enables comparison of scan resolution relative to trabecular thickness and indicates the number of pixels representing an average trabecular strut.</p>3<p>Includes <i>G. gorilla</i> (n = 3) and <i>G. beringei</i> (n = 1).</p>4<p>Includes <i>P. pygmaeus</i> (n = 6) and <i>P. abelii</i> (n = 3).</p>5<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781#pone.0078781-Tuttle2\" target=\"_blank\">[50]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781#pone.0078781-Doran1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>.</p>6<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781#pone.0078781-Hunt1\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781#pone.0078781-Doran1\" target=\"_blank\">[52]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781#pone.0078781-Doran4\" target=\"_blank\">[55]</a>.</p>7<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781#pone.0078781-Thorpe1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>.</p>8<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781#pone.0078781-Hunt1\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["locomotory"], "article_id"=>850459, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_the_study_sample_including_primary_locomotory_mode_/850459", "title"=>"Details of the study sample including primary locomotory mode.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280462"], "description"=>"1<p>Scaled trabecular thickness is the mean trabecular thickness/geometric mean of metacarpal head size.</p>2<p>Degree of anisotropy is calculated as 1 minus the ratio of the smallest and largest eigenvalue of the fabric tensor where a DA value of 0 represents complete isotropy and a DA value of 1 represents complete anisotropy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trabecular"], "article_id"=>850458, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_for_trabecular_bone_structure_/850458", "title"=>"Summary statistics for trabecular bone structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280457"], "description"=>"<p>Different stages of quantifying trabecular structure through the entire metacarpal head region, here shown as sagittal cross-sections through a <i>P. troglodytes</i> specimen as an example: (a) the original segmented scan; (b) the final masked image from which trabecular structure (and cortical structure) can be quantified and the background grid and sampling sphere used to calculate bone volume fraction and the orientation of trabecular bone (c) 3D mesh where the yellow material represents the trabecular region and the red material represents the cortex; (d) sagittal image of 3D colour map of bone volume fraction throughout the metacarpal head; (e–h) lateral, dorsal, palmar, and distal views of the 3D colour map of the bone volume fraction. The density map of the bone volume fraction is scaled from 0–0.45 BV/TV (lowest BV/TV in blue, highest BV/TV in red) in all images. Only the user-defined head region is shown here but the full bone was processed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["visualizing", "trabecular"], "article_id"=>850453, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quantifying_and_visualizing_trabecular_structure_/850453", "title"=>"Quantifying and visualizing trabecular structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280456"], "description"=>"<p>Each stage of the processing steps that separate the complete cortical and trabecular bone regions for each specimen, here shown as a sagittal cross-section in a <i>P. troglodytes</i> specimen: (a) the original segmented scan; (b) the outer surface, outlining the external surface of the cortical bone; (c) the inner surface, outlining the internal boundary between the cortical and trabecular bone; (d) the separated cortical bone model (calculated as the outer surface - inner surface); (e) the separated trabecular bone; mask images assigning different grayscale values to (f) the trabecular structure and internal “non-bone” and (g) cortex; (h) the final masked image from which trabecular structure (and cortical structure) can be quantified and the background grid and sampling sphere used to calculate bone volume fraction and the orientation of trabecular bone. Only the head region is shown here but the full bone was processed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["stages", "trabecular"], "article_id"=>850452, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Processing_stages_of_trabecular_bone_analysis_/850452", "title"=>"Processing stages of trabecular bone analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280464"], "description"=>"<p>ns = not significant.</p><p>Bolded values remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons (adjusted significance for multiple comparisons from pairwise comparisons output of Kruskal-Wallis SPSS).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["post-hoc", "pairwise", "comparisons", "anisotropy"], "article_id"=>850460, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>48, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallis_post_hoc_pairwise_comparisons_degree_of_anisotropy_top_and_bone_volume_fraction_bottom_/850460", "title"=>"Kruskal-Wallis post-hoc pairwise comparisons degree of anisotropy (top) and bone volume fraction (bottom).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280461"], "description"=>"<p>ns = not significant.</p><p>Bolded values remain significant after correction for multiple comparisons (adjusted significance for multiple comparisons from pairwise comparisons output of Kruskal-Wallis SPSS).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["post-hoc", "pairwise", "comparisons", "trabecular", "thickness", "scaled"], "article_id"=>850457, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallis_post_hoc_pairwise_comparisons_absolute_trabecular_thickness_top_and_scaled_trabecular_thickness_bottom_/850457", "title"=>"Kruskal-Wallis post-hoc pairwise comparisons absolute trabecular thickness (top) and scaled trabecular thickness (bottom).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280459"], "description"=>"<p>Taking into account the divergence dates of the hominoid linage, these evolutionary reconstructions show how body mass, trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and degree of anisotropy (DA) are estimated to have changed over time based on the trabecular structure present in extant hominoid metacarpals. The x axis represents time in millions of years (Mya). Green represents an increase and red a decrease, the thickness of the line reveals the rate of change.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["reconstructions", "evolutionary", "trabecular"], "article_id"=>850455, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_reconstructions_of_evolutionary_changes_in_body_mass_and_trabecular_bone_parameters_/850455", "title"=>"Phylogenetic reconstructions of evolutionary changes in body mass and trabecular bone parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280460"], "description"=>"<p>Sagittal midline cross-section of the third metacarpal head in three views. Top row, a cross-section of the original segmented scan, showing variation in trabecular structure across taxa. Middle row, a colour map of bone volume (BV/TV) distribution scaled to 0–0.45 (cortical bone has been removed). Bottom row, directions of greatest stiffness superimposed on the bone volume colour map. Only regions with high Young's moduli (>1000 Pa) are considered in all taxa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hominoid", "metacarpal"], "article_id"=>850456, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trabecular_structure_in_the_hominoid_third_metacarpal_head_/850456", "title"=>"Trabecular structure in the hominoid third metacarpal head.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280486", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280487", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280488", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280489", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280490", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280491", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280492", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280493"], "description"=>"<div><p>Bone is capable of adapting during life in response to stress. Therefore, variation in locomotor and manipulative behaviours across extant hominoids may be reflected in differences in trabecular bone structure. The hand is a promising region for trabecular analysis, as it is the direct contact between the individual and the environment and joint positions at peak loading vary amongst extant hominoids. Building upon traditional volume of interest-based analyses, we apply a whole-epiphysis analytical approach using high-resolution microtomographic scans of the hominoid third metacarpal to investigate whether trabecular structure reflects differences in hand posture and loading in knuckle-walking (<i>Gorilla</i>, <i>Pan</i>), suspensory (<i>Pongo</i>, <i>Hylobates</i> and <i>Symphalangus</i>) and manipulative (<i>Homo</i>) taxa. Additionally, a comparative phylogenetic method was used to analyse rates of evolutionary changes in trabecular parameters. Results demonstrate that trabecular bone volume distribution and regions of greatest stiffness (i.e., Young's modulus) correspond with predicted loading of the hand in each behavioural category. In suspensory and manipulative taxa, regions of high bone volume and greatest stiffness are concentrated on the palmar or distopalmar regions of the metacarpal head, whereas knuckle-walking taxa show greater bone volume and stiffness throughout the head, and particularly in the dorsal region; patterns that correspond with the highest predicted joint reaction forces. Trabecular structure in knuckle-walking taxa is characterised by high bone volume fraction and a high degree of anisotropy in contrast to the suspensory brachiators. Humans, in which the hand is used primarily for manipulation, have a low bone volume fraction and a variable degree of anisotropy. Finally, when trabecular parameters are mapped onto a molecular-based phylogeny, we show that the rates of change in trabecular structure vary across the hominoid clade. Our results support a link between inferred behaviour and trabecular structure in extant hominoids that can be informative for reconstructing behaviour in fossil primates.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["correlates", "posture"], "article_id"=>850469, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trabecular_Bone_Structure_Correlates_with_Hand_Posture_and_Use_in_Hominoids_/850469", "title"=>"Trabecular Bone Structure Correlates with Hand Posture and Use in Hominoids", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280458"], "description"=>"<p>Knuckle-walking taxa (<i>Gorilla</i> and <i>Pan</i>) are characterised by a high BV/TV and, to a lesser extent, high DA in comparison with the brachiating taxa (<i>Hylobates</i> and <i>Symphalangus</i>). <i>Pongo</i> is highly variable in both BV/TV and DA. <i>Homo</i> has a comparatively low BV/TV and a large range of DA values. (<b>G </b><i>Gorilla</i>; <b>Pp </b><i>P. paniscus</i>; <b>Pt </b><i>P. troglodytes</i>; <b>P </b><i>Pongo</i>; <b>Ss </b><i>Symphalangus syndactylus</i>; <b>Hs </b><i>Homo sapiens</i>; <b>Ha </b><i>Hylobates agilis</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anisotropy"], "article_id"=>850454, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bivariate_plot_of_bone_volume_fraction_BV_TV_and_degree_of_anisotropy_DA_/850454", "title"=>"Bivariate plot of bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and degree of anisotropy (DA).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280455"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Flexed metacarpophalangeal joint of a suspensory hand posture in which the joint reaction force (JRF, represented by black arrow) acts on the palmar region of the metacarpal head. Suspensory Asian apes also use hook-grips with a neutral metacarpophalangeal joint in which the JRF would act on the distal region of the metacarpal head as well; (b) Extended metacarpophalangeal joint of a knuckle-walking hand posture in which the JRF acts on the dorsal region of the metacarpal head; (c) Flexed metacarpophalangeal joint used during power grip manipulation in which JRF acts on the palmar region of the metacarpal head. Neutral metacarpophalangeal joint positions are also commonly used during manipulation in which JRF would act on the distal region of the metacarpal head.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["loading", "metacarpal"], "article_id"=>850451, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Zewdi J. Tsegai", "Tracy L. Kivell", "Thomas Gross", "N. Huynh Nguyen", "Dieter H. Pahr", "Jeroen B. Smaers", "Matthew M. Skinner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078781.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_position_of_peak_loading_on_the_metacarpal_head_/850451", "title"=>"Predicted position of peak loading on the metacarpal head.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 02:48:28"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2013", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 440, 562, 666, 765, 856, 944, 1028, 1112, 1198, 1282, 1362, 1430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biomechanics", "average_usage"=>[262, 443, 579, 690, 795, 884, 991, 1089, 1183, 1275, 1366, 1445, 1522]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 441, 564, 668, 769, 859, 948, 1034, 1117, 1202, 1290, 1368, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Diagnostic medicine", "average_usage"=>[244, 425, 535, 636, 728, 814, 900, 982, 1063, 1139, 1221, 1296, 1361]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[258, 449, 572, 679, 775, 866, 956, 1041, 1124, 1211, 1291, 1371, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Radiology and imaging", "average_usage"=>[230, 403, 513, 618, 711, 806, 896, 985, 1065, 1141, 1225, 1296, 1360]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[254, 431, 547, 651, 748, 842, 932, 1017, 1098, 1178, 1259, 1336, 1404]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[254, 421, 527, 626, 720, 813, 900, 983, 1063, 1136, 1210, 1283, 1342]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts