Economic Recession and Emergence of an HIV-1 Outbreak among Drug Injectors in Athens Metropolitan Area: A Longitudinal Study
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{"title"=>"Economic recession and emergence of an HIV-1 outbreak among drug injectors in Athens metropolitan area: A longitudinal study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dimitrios", "last_name"=>"Paraskevis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603346862"}, {"first_name"=>"Georgios", "last_name"=>"Nikolopoulos", "scopus_author_id"=>"15832379300"}, {"first_name"=>"Anastasios", "last_name"=>"Fotiou", "scopus_author_id"=>"24478318700"}, {"first_name"=>"Chrissa", "last_name"=>"Tsiara", "scopus_author_id"=>"16426585800"}, {"first_name"=>"Dimitra", "last_name"=>"Paraskeva", "scopus_author_id"=>"8604274300"}, {"first_name"=>"Vana", "last_name"=>"Sypsa", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603369653"}, {"first_name"=>"Marios", "last_name"=>"Lazanas", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195971400"}, {"first_name"=>"Panagiotis", "last_name"=>"Gargalianos", "scopus_author_id"=>"56884347500"}, {"first_name"=>"Mina", "last_name"=>"Psichogiou", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194563325"}, {"first_name"=>"Athanasios", "last_name"=>"Skoutelis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003298099"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucas", "last_name"=>"Wiessing", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701793046"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel R.", "last_name"=>"Friedman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403182080"}, {"first_name"=>"Don C.", "last_name"=>"Des Jarlais", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102414985"}, {"first_name"=>"Manina", "last_name"=>"Terzidou", "scopus_author_id"=>"21535621200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jenny", "last_name"=>"Kremastinou", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603403663"}, {"first_name"=>"Meni", "last_name"=>"Malliori", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506997678"}, {"first_name"=>"Angelos", "last_name"=>"Hatzakis", "scopus_author_id"=>"35371482000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372252775", "sgr"=>"84893354645", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24265730", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893354645", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078941", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"e0342965-c01c-3fd2-a367-0956422be135", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: During 2011, a dramatic increase (1600%) of reported HIV-1 infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) was noted in Athens, Greece. We herein assess the potential causal pathways associated with this outbreak.\\n\\nMETHODS: Our study employed high resolution HIV-1 phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. We examined also longitudinal data of ecological variables such as the annual growth of gross domestic product (GDP) of Greece in association with HIV-1 and HCV sentinel prevalence in IDUs, unemployment and homelessness rates and HIV transmission networks in Athens IDUs before and during economic recession (2008-2012).\\n\\nRESULTS: IDU isolates sampled in 2011 and 2012 suggested transmission networks in 94.6% and 92.7% of the cases in striking contrast with the sporadic networking (5%) during 1998-2009. The geographic origin of most HIV-1 isolates was consistent with the recently documented migratory waves in Greece. The decline in GDP was inversely correlated with annual prevalence rates of HIV and HCV and with unemployment and homelessness rates in IDUs (all p<0.001). The slope of anti-HCV prevalence in the sentinel populations of IDUs and in \"new\" drug injectors was found 120 and 1.9-fold (p = 0.007, p = 0.08 respectively) higher in 2008-2012 (economic recession) compared with 2002-2006. The median (25th, 75th) size of transmission networks were 34 (12, 58) and 2 (2, 2) (p = 0.057) in 2008-2012 and 1998-2007, respectively. The coverage of harm reduction services was low throughout the study period.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Scaling-up harm reduction services and addressing social and structural factors related to the current economic crisis should be urgently considered in environments where HIV-1 outbreaks may occur.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/economic-recession-emergence-hiv1-outbreak-among-drug-injectors-athens-metropolitan-area-longitudina", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>20, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>20}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Greece"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277365"], "description"=>"<p>Number of reported HIV-1 cases among injecting drug users (IDUs) (blue) and the total population (red) over different years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hiv-1", "cases", "injecting", "users"], "article_id"=>847954, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_reported_HIV_1_cases_among_injecting_drug_users_IDUs_blue_and_the_total_population_red_over_different_years_/847954", "title"=>"Number of reported HIV-1 cases among injecting drug users (IDUs) (blue) and the total population (red) over different years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277367"], "description"=>"<p>a Sentinel anti-HIV prevalence in IDUs entering drug treatment or accessing low-threshold services during the years 2002–2012 in Athens and areas other than Athens. b Sentinel anti-HCV prevalence in injecting drug users (IDUs) entering drug-related treatment or accessing low-threshold services during 2002–2012 in Athens and areas other than Athens. c Sentinel anti-HCV prevalence in IDUs with injecting history of less than 2 years (“new” IDUs) entering drug-related treatment or accessing low-threshold services during 2002–2012 in Athens and areas other than Athens. d Unemployment and homelessness rate drug injectors during 2002–2011 in Athens. Data were not collected in 2007.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sentinel", "anti-hiv", "prevalence", "idus", "entering", "accessing", "low-threshold", "services", "years", "athens", "areas", "anti-hcv", "injecting", "users", "drug-related", "homelessness", "injectors"], "article_id"=>847956, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_a_Sentinel_anti_HIV_prevalence_in_IDUs_entering_drug_treatment_or_accessing_low_threshold_services_during_the_years_2002_8211_2012_in_Athens_and_areas_other_than_Athens_b_Sentinel_anti_HCV_prevalence_in_injecting_drug_users_IDUs_entering_drug_related_tre/847956", "title"=>"a Sentinel anti-HIV prevalence in IDUs entering drug treatment or accessing low-threshold services during the years 2002–2012 in Athens and areas other than Athens. b Sentinel anti-HCV prevalence in injecting drug users (IDUs) entering drug-related treatment or accessing low-threshold services during 2002–2012 in Athens and areas other than Athens. c Sentinel anti-HCV prevalence in IDUs with injecting history of less than 2 years (“new” IDUs) entering drug-related treatment or accessing low-threshold services during 2002–2012 in Athens and areas other than Athens. d Unemployment and homelessness rate drug injectors during 2002–2011 in Athens. Data were not collected in 2007.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277368"], "description"=>"<p>Molecular clock analyses of HIV-1 sequences from: A. subtype A and CRF35_AD B. subtype B and C. subtype G and CRF14_BG sampled from different geographic areas and Greece.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hiv-1", "sequences", "subtype", "crf35_ad", "crf14_bg", "sampled", "geographic", "areas"], "article_id"=>847957, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Molecular_clock_analyses_of_HIV_1_sequences_from_A_subtype_A_and_CRF35_AD_B_subtype_B_and_C_subtype_G_and_CRF14_BG_sampled_from_different_geographic_areas_and_Greece_/847957", "title"=>"Molecular clock analyses of HIV-1 sequences from: A. subtype A and CRF35_AD B. subtype B and C. subtype G and CRF14_BG sampled from different geographic areas and Greece.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277370"], "description"=>"<p>IDU clusters are shown by triangles proportional to the number of sequences. The time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for the different outbreaks is denoted at the top of each triangle. The tMRCA for both subtype B clusters 1 and 2 was estimated before 2002 not shown in figure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hiv-1", "injecting", "users"], "article_id"=>847959, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plot_of_the_reporting_rate_of_HIV_1_infection_among_injecting_drug_users_IDUs_per_100_000_of_population_in_relation_with_the_annual_growth_rate_of_gross_domestic_product_GDP_/847959", "title"=>"Plot of the reporting rate of HIV-1 infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) per 100,000 of population in relation with the annual growth rate of gross domestic product (GDP).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277371"], "description"=>"<p>Bold arrows indicate causal pathways suggested in the current study. Thin arrows indicate other possible causal pathways.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hiv-1", "outbreak", "athens"], "article_id"=>847960, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Working_hypothesis_for_the_HIV_1_outbreak_in_Athens_Metropolitan_Area_/847960", "title"=>"Working hypothesis for the HIV-1 outbreak in Athens Metropolitan Area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277372"], "description"=>"1<p>CI: Confidence Interval, HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HCV: Hepatitis C VirusIn all models, robust estimates of variance have been used.</p>2<p>For the negative binomial regression model, the coefficient has been exponentiated corresponding to the reporting rate ratio of HIV-1 infection in drug injectors for one unit increase in the annual growth rate of GDP [i.e. for 1% increase of GDP each year, the reporting rate of HIV-1 infection in drug injectors reduces by 1–0.78 = 0.22 or 22%).</p>3<p>The prevalence of HIV-1 infection has been logged (natural logarithm).</p>4<p>Estimated among drug injectors who accessed drug treatment -or low-threshold services in Athens. Data were not available for 2001 and 2007.</p>5<p>“New” drug injectors: IDUs with injecting history of less than 2 years.</p>6<p>Estimated among drug injectors who contacted treatment services or low-threshold facilities in Athens. Data for 2007 and 2012 were not available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["associations", "greece", "variables"], "article_id"=>847961, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Univariable_ecological_associations_between_the_annual_growth_rate_of_Gross_Domestic_Product_GDP_in_Greece_and_various_dependent_variables_for_the_period_2001_8211_2012_/847961", "title"=>"Univariable ecological associations between the annual growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Greece and various dependent variables for the period 2001–2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277373"], "description"=>"<p>IDUs: Injecting Drug Users; CRF: Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs).</p>1<p>Comparison of the prevalence of subtypes and CRFs between the total sampled HIV-1 infected population (1998–2009) and the IDUs (1998–2009).</p>2<p>Comparison of the prevalence of subtypes and CRFs between the IDUs sampled during 1998–2009 and 2010–2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hiv-1", "subtypes", "recombinant"], "article_id"=>847962, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_HIV_1_subtypes_and_recombinant_forms_/847962", "title"=>"Prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant forms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277374"], "description"=>"<p><b>FSU:</b> Former Soviet Union.</p><p><b>tMRCA:</b> Time to most recent common ancestor.</p><p><b>HPD:</b> Higher Posterior Density.</p><p><b>NA:</b> Not Available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogenetic", "clusters", "injecting", "users"], "article_id"=>847963, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_phylogenetic_clusters_among_injecting_drug_users_IDUs_/847963", "title"=>"Characteristics of phylogenetic clusters among injecting drug users (IDUs).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277375"], "description"=>"<p>IDUs: Injecting Drug Users.</p>*<p>Comparisons of each group with the IDUs samples during 1998–2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hiv-1"], "article_id"=>847964, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Patterns_of_HIV_1_spread_in_IDUs_/847964", "title"=>"Patterns of HIV-1 spread in IDUs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277377", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277378", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277379", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1277380"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>During 2011, a dramatic increase (1600%) of reported HIV-1 infections among injecting drug users (IDUs) was noted in Athens, Greece. We herein assess the potential causal pathways associated with this outbreak.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Our study employed high resolution HIV-1 phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. We examined also longitudinal data of ecological variables such as the annual growth of gross domestic product (GDP) of Greece in association with HIV-1 and HCV sentinel prevalence in IDUs, unemployment and homelessness rates and HIV transmission networks in Athens IDUs before and during economic recession (2008–2012).</p><p>Results</p><p>IDU isolates sampled in 2011 and 2012 suggested transmission networks in 94.6% and 92.7% of the cases in striking contrast with the sporadic networking (5%) during 1998–2009. The geographic origin of most HIV-1 isolates was consistent with the recently documented migratory waves in Greece. The decline in GDP was inversely correlated with annual prevalence rates of HIV and HCV and with unemployment and homelessness rates in IDUs (all p<0.001). The slope of anti-HCV prevalence in the sentinel populations of IDUs and in “new” drug injectors was found 120 and 1.9-fold (p = 0.007, p = 0.08 respectively) higher in 2008–2012 (economic recession) compared with 2002–2006. The median (25th, 75th) size of transmission networks were 34 (12, 58) and 2 (2, 2) (p = 0.057) in 2008–2012 and 1998–2007, respectively. The coverage of harm reduction services was low throughout the study period.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Scaling-up harm reduction services and addressing social and structural factors related to the current economic crisis should be urgently considered in environments where HIV-1 outbreaks may occur.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["emergence", "hiv-1", "outbreak", "injectors", "athens", "longitudinal"], "article_id"=>847966, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Dimitrios Paraskevis", "Georgios Nikolopoulos", "Anastasios Fotiou", "Chrissa Tsiara", "Dimitra Paraskeva", "Vana Sypsa", "Marios Lazanas", "Panagiotis Gargalianos", "Mina Psichogiou", "Athanasios Skoutelis", "Lucas Wiessing", "Samuel R. Friedman", "Don C. d. e. s. Jarlais", "Manina Terzidou", "Jenny Kremastinou", "Meni Malliori", "Angelos Hatzakis"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078941.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Economic_Recession_and_Emergence_of_an_HIV_1_Outbreak_among_Drug_Injectors_in_Athens_Metropolitan_Area_A_Longitudinal_Study_/847966", "title"=>"Economic Recession and Emergence of an HIV-1 Outbreak among Drug Injectors in Athens Metropolitan Area: A Longitudinal Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-12 03:36:23"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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