Tissue Specific Localization of Pectin–Ca2+ Cross-Linkages and Pectin Methyl-Esterification during Fruit Ripening in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
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{"title"=>"Tissue specific localization of pectin-Ca2+ cross-linkages and pectin methyl-esterification during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hiromi", "last_name"=>"Hyodo", "scopus_author_id"=>"55607514000"}, {"first_name"=>"Azusa", "last_name"=>"Terao", "scopus_author_id"=>"55442940200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jun", "last_name"=>"Furukawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"35554771200"}, {"first_name"=>"Naoya", "last_name"=>"Sakamoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"35453151500"}, {"first_name"=>"Hisayoshi", "last_name"=>"Yurimoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007164077"}, {"first_name"=>"Shinobu", "last_name"=>"Satoh", "scopus_author_id"=>"55443447800"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiroaki", "last_name"=>"Iwai", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202008671"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372309798", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078949", "sgr"=>"84893628600", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893628600", "pmid"=>"24236073"}, "id"=>"68011a85-d815-3a90-bc8e-edbf20a33778", "abstract"=>"Fruit ripening is one of the developmental processes accompanying seed development. The tomato is a well-known model for studying fruit ripening and development, and the disassembly of primary cell walls and the middle lamella, such as through pectin de-methylesterified by pectin methylesterase (PE) and depolymerization by polygalacturonase (PG), is generally accepted to be one of the major changes that occur during ripening. Although many reports of the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening are focused on the relation to softening of the pericarp or the Blossom-end rot by calcium (Ca²⁺) deficiency disorder, the changes in pectin structure and localization in each tissues during tomato fruit ripening is not well known. In this study, to elucidate the tissue-specific role of pectin during fruit development and ripening, we examined gene expression, the enzymatic activities involved in pectin synthesis and depolymerisation in fruit using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, and uronic acids and calcium (Ca)-bound pectin were determined by secondary ion-microprobe mass spectrometry. These results show that changes in pectin properties during fruit development and ripening have tissue-specific patterns. In particular, differential control of pectin methyl-esterification occurs in each tissue. Variations in the cell walls of the pericarp are quite different from that of locular tissues. The Ca-binding pectin and hairy pectin in skin cell layers are important for intercellular and tissue-tissue adhesion. Maintenance of the globular form and softening of tomato fruit may be regulated by the arrangement of pectin structures in each tissue.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/tissue-specific-localization-pectinca2-crosslinkages-pectin-methylesterification-during-fruit-ripeni", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Engineering"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "Argentina"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280078"], "description"=>"<p>A, The fruit ripening stages of cv. Micro Tom. The six stages included immature green (I), mature green (M), breaker (B), turning (T), red ripe (R) and overripe (O). B, The fruit tissues of cv. Micro Tom. The eight tissues included skin, mesocarp, endocarp, septum, locular tissue, seed, placenta and core. These were separated by hand-sectioning.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tissue-specific"], "article_id"=>850155, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Hiromi Hyodo", "Azusa Terao", "Jun Furukawa", "Naoya Sakamoto", "Hisayoshi Yurimoto", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078949.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Preparation_for_tissue_specific_analysis_/850155", "title"=>"Preparation for tissue-specific analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 04:35:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280079"], "description"=>"<p>Gene expression was analysed by RT-PCR. A, PE2, pectin methyl-esterase 2 (25 cycles); B, PG2, polygalacturonase 2 (25 cycles); C, GAUT1 family <i>Arabidopsis</i> pectin homogalacturonan galacturonosyltransferase-like gene family (25 cycles); D, rRNA, as a control (20 cycles). Expression levels were compared to <i>rRNA</i> in the same assay. The eight tissues analyzed in these assays included skin, mesocarp, endocarp, septum, locular tissue, seed, placenta, and core. Ripening stages were the following: I, immature green; M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning; R, red ripe; O, overripe.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "differed"], "article_id"=>850156, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Hiromi Hyodo", "Azusa Terao", "Jun Furukawa", "Naoya Sakamoto", "Hisayoshi Yurimoto", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078949.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pectin_biosynthesis_degradation_related_gene_expression_patterns_differed_among_tissues_/850156", "title"=>"Pectin biosynthesis/degradation-related gene expression patterns differed among tissues.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 04:35:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280081"], "description"=>"<p>A, PE activity. Total protein in the cell wall was extracted from each fruit tissue and assayed for PE activity. One unit means a decrease in OD<sub>620</sub> per second. B, Degree of pectin methyl-esterification. The pectin fraction was extracted from fruit tissues for analysis. The five tissues analysed in these assays included skin, mesocarp/endocarp, septum, locular tissue and seed. Ripening stage: I, immature green; M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning; R, red ripe; O, overripe. ±SD of three independent replicates. C, Pectin localisation between the skin and the mesocarp. Light microscopy images with Toluidine Blue (a-e) as a control, Ruthenium Red after NaOH treatment for 5 min (f-j) staining of pectin and Ruthenium Red (k-o) staining of de-methyl-esterified pectin. Ripening stage: I, immature green; M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning; R, red ripe.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["decreasing", "pectin", "methyl-esterification", "pericarp"], "article_id"=>850158, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Hiromi Hyodo", "Azusa Terao", "Jun Furukawa", "Naoya Sakamoto", "Hisayoshi Yurimoto", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078949.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PE_activity_and_a_decreasing_degree_of_pectin_methyl_esterification_were_specific_to_pericarp_tissues_/850158", "title"=>"PE activity and a decreasing degree of pectin methyl-esterification were specific to pericarp tissues.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 04:35:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280082"], "description"=>"<p>A, Ca content in tomato fruit tissues. B, Ca content in the tomato fruit cell wall. The alcohol-insoluble residue fraction was extracted from fruit tissues for analysis. Ca content in each fraction was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). C, Ca determination between the skin and mesocarp. Quantitative imaging by secondary ion-microprobe mass spectrometry (SIMS). Ruthenium: showing ruthenium, which binds with pectin. Calcium: showing calcium content. Merge: showing overlap of ruthenium (pectin) and calcium.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pectin", "plentiful", "layers"], "article_id"=>850159, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Hiromi Hyodo", "Azusa Terao", "Jun Furukawa", "Naoya Sakamoto", "Hisayoshi Yurimoto", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078949.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ca_bound_pectin_was_plentiful_in_the_boundary_cell_layers_between_the_skin_and_mesocarp_/850159", "title"=>"Ca-bound pectin was plentiful in the boundary cell layers between the skin and mesocarp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 04:35:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280083"], "description"=>"<p>PG activity was determined by the Milner-Avigad method (Milner and Avigad, 1967). Total protein in the cell wall was extracted from each tomato fruit tissue and assayed for PG activity. The five tissues analysed in this assay included skin, mesocarp/endocarp, septum, locular tissue and seed. Ripening stage: M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning. ±SD of three independent replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["softening", "pericarp", "tissues", "ripening"], "article_id"=>850160, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Hiromi Hyodo", "Azusa Terao", "Jun Furukawa", "Naoya Sakamoto", "Hisayoshi Yurimoto", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078949.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PG_activity_affects_fruit_softening_in_pericarp_tissues_at_the_late_ripening_stage_/850160", "title"=>"PG activity affects fruit softening in pericarp tissues at the late ripening stage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 04:35:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280084"], "description"=>"<p>A, Dry weight of the alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) per 1 g fresh weight from each fruit tissue. B, Pectin content per 1 g fresh weight from each fruit tissue. C, Relative pectin content in the cell wall. The five tissues analysed in this assay included skin, mesocarp/endocarp, septum, locular tissue and seed. D, Suger content in pectin fraction extracted from skin cell wall. Ripening stage: I, immature green; M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning; R, red ripe; O, overripe. ±SD of three independent replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pectin", "differed", "tissues"], "article_id"=>850161, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Hiromi Hyodo", "Azusa Terao", "Jun Furukawa", "Naoya Sakamoto", "Hisayoshi Yurimoto", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078949.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_the_cell_wall_and_pectin_content_differed_in_fruit_tissues_during_ripening_/850161", "title"=>"Changes in the cell wall and pectin content differed in fruit tissues during ripening.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 04:35:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280088"], "description"=>"<p>A, Light microscopy images with Toluidine Blue as a control. B, Negative control. C, Immunolabeled with LM19, which labelled de-methyl-esterified HG. D, Immunolabeled with LM20, which labelled methyl-esterified HG. Ripening stage: I, immature green; M, mature green; B, breaker; T, turning; R, red ripe. E, Immunolabeled with LM19, which labelled de-methyl-esterified HG. Top row micrographs indicate Sepal side of pericarp (Se), middle row micrographs indicate Middle of pericarp (Mi), and bottom row micrographs indicate Stigma side of pericarp (St).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["homogalacturonan", "epitopes", "longitudinal"], "article_id"=>850164, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Hiromi Hyodo", "Azusa Terao", "Jun Furukawa", "Naoya Sakamoto", "Hisayoshi Yurimoto", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078949.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>124, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Immunolocalization_of_Homogalacturonan_HG_epitopes_in_tomato_fruit_longitudinal_section_of_fruit_/850164", "title"=>"Immunolocalization of Homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes in tomato fruit longitudinal section of fruit.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 04:35:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1280090"], "description"=>"<div><p>Fruit ripening is one of the developmental processes accompanying seed development. The tomato is a well-known model for studying fruit ripening and development, and the disassembly of primary cell walls and the middle lamella, such as through pectin de-methylesterified by pectin methylesterase (PE) and depolymerization by polygalacturonase (PG), is generally accepted to be one of the major changes that occur during ripening. Although many reports of the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening are focused on the relation to softening of the pericarp or the Blossom-end rot by calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) deficiency disorder, the changes in pectin structure and localization in each tissues during tomato fruit ripening is not well known. In this study, to elucidate the tissue-specific role of pectin during fruit development and ripening, we examined gene expression, the enzymatic activities involved in pectin synthesis and depolymerisation in fruit using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, and uronic acids and calcium (Ca)-bound pectin were determined by secondary ion-microprobe mass spectrometry. These results show that changes in pectin properties during fruit development and ripening have tissue-specific patterns. In particular, differential control of pectin methyl-esterification occurs in each tissue. Variations in the cell walls of the pericarp are quite different from that of locular tissues. The Ca-binding pectin and hairy pectin in skin cell layers are important for intercellular and tissue–tissue adhesion. Maintenance of the globular form and softening of tomato fruit may be regulated by the arrangement of pectin structures in each tissue.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["localization", "cross-linkages", "pectin", "methyl-esterification", "ripening"], "article_id"=>850166, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Hiromi Hyodo", "Azusa Terao", "Jun Furukawa", "Naoya Sakamoto", "Hisayoshi Yurimoto", "Shinobu Satoh", "Hiroaki Iwai"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078949", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Tissue_Specific_Localization_of_Pectin_Ca_2_Cross_Linkages_and_Pectin_Methyl_Esterification_during_Fruit_Ripening_in_Tomato_Solanum_lycopersicum_/850166", "title"=>"Tissue Specific Localization of Pectin–Ca<sup>2+</sup> Cross-Linkages and Pectin Methyl-Esterification during Fruit Ripening in Tomato (<i>Solanum lycopersicum</i>)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 04:35:52"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[272, 472, 600, 713, 815, 911, 1004, 1094, 1185, 1273, 1358, 1441]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[247, 429, 544, 647, 747, 842, 929, 1012, 1099, 1179, 1263, 1339, 1409]}]}
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