The Monogenean Which Lost Its Clamps
Publication Date
November 22, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jean Lou Justine, Chahrazed Rahmouni, Delphine Gey, Charlotte Schoelinck, et al
Volume
8
Issue
11
Pages
e79155
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0079155
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24278118
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3838368
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24278118
Web of Science
000327541700006
Scopus
84896727197
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/monogenean-lost-clamps
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293521"], "description"=>"<div><p>Ectoparasites face a daily challenge: to remain attached to their hosts. Polyopisthocotylean monogeneans usually attach to the surface of fish gills using highly specialized structures, the sclerotized clamps. In the original description of the protomicrocotylid species <i>Lethacotyle fijiensis</i>, described 60 years ago, the clamps were considered to be absent but few specimens were available and this observation was later questioned. In addition, genera within the family Protomicrocotylidae have either clamps of the “gastrocotylid” or the “microcotylid” types; this puzzled systematists because these clamp types are characteristic of distinct, major groups. Discovery of another, new, species of the genus <i>Lethacotyle</i>, has allowed us to explore the nature of the attachment structures in protomicrocotylids. <i>Lethacotyle vera</i> n. sp. is described from the gills of the carangid <i>Caranx papuensis</i> off New Caledonia. It is distinguished from <i>Lethacotyle fijiensis</i>, the only other species of the genus, by the length of the male copulatory spines. Sequences of 28S rDNA were used to build a tree, in which <i>Lethacotyle vera</i> grouped with other protomicrocotylids. The identity of the host fish was confirmed with COI barcodes. We observed that protomicrocotylids have specialized structures associated with their attachment organ, such as lateral flaps and transverse striations, which are not known in other monogeneans. We thus hypothesized that the clamps in protomicrocotylids were sequentially lost during evolution, coinciding with the development of other attachment structures. To test the hypothesis, we calculated the surfaces of clamps and body in 120 species of gastrocotylinean monogeneans, based on published descriptions. The ratio of clamp surface: body surface was the lowest in protomicrocotylids. We conclude that clamps in protomicrocotylids are vestigial organs, and that occurrence of “gastrocotylid” and simpler “microcotylid” clamps within the same family are steps in an evolutionary sequence, leading to the absence of these attributes in species of <i>Lethacotyle</i>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["monogenean"], "article_id"=>860770, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Monogenean_Which_Lost_Its_Clamps_/860770", "title"=>"The Monogenean Which Lost Its Clamps", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293495"], "description"=>"<p>The slide containing the single specimen of <i>Lethacotyle</i> available for study before this paper: holotype of <i>Lethacotyle fijiensi</i>s Manter & Prince, 1953 (urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:DA367684-AAC2-44D0-A8E8-64894AFA647A), slide USNPC 48718. Our study is another example of the importance of Museum collections for modern research <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155#pone.0079155-Hoberg1\" target=\"_blank\">[86]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155#pone.0079155-Hoberg2\" target=\"_blank\">[87]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen"], "article_id"=>860743, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_single_specimen_of_Lethacotyle_available_for_study_before_this_paper_/860743", "title"=>"The single specimen of <i>Lethacotyle</i> available for study before this paper.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293497"], "description"=>"<p><i>Lethacotyle fijiensis</i> Manter & Prince, 1953 (urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:DA367684-AAC2-44D0-A8E8-64894AFA647A). Holotype, slide USNPC 48718. A, body. B, posterior part of body, different focus. C, D, spines of male copulatory organ, two different focuses. E, sclerotised vagina. Original photographs taken by Patricia Pilitt, USNPC.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["holotype", "manter"], "article_id"=>860745, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Photograph_of_the_holotype_of_Lethacotyle_fijiensis_Manter_Prince_1953_/860745", "title"=>"Photograph of the holotype of <i>Lethacotyle fijiensis</i> Manter & Prince, 1953.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293498"], "description"=>"<p>Examples of clamps in various genera of Protomicrocotylidae. A, <i>Bilaterocotyloides novaeguineae</i> (Rohde, 1977) Lebedev, 1986 (USNPC 74800). B, <i>Protomicrocotyle</i> sp. (MNHN JNC1163A5). C, <i>Neomicrocotyle</i> sp. (MNHN JNC3242A4). Black: additional sclerite, characteristic of the “gastrocotylid” clamp. <i>Bilaterocotyloides</i> and <i>Protomicrocotyle</i> have clamps of the “gastrocotylid” type, <i>Neomicrocotyle</i> has clamps of the “microcotylid” type, and <i>Lethacotyle</i> has no clamp.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genera"], "article_id"=>860746, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clamps_in_various_genera_of_Protomicrocotylidae_/860746", "title"=>"Clamps in various genera of Protomicrocotylidae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293500"], "description"=>"<p>Body and clamp surfaces: examples of line drawings used for data extraction in each of the 8 families of the Gastrocotylinea. All species drawn to same body length. A, Gotocotylidae, <i>Gotocotyla niphonii</i>. B, Bychowskicotylidae, <i>Tonkinopsis transfretanus</i>. C, Gastrocotylidae, <i>Allopseudaxinoides euthynni</i>. D, Neothoracocotylidae, <i>Pricea minimae</i>. E, Allodiscocotylidae, <i>Metacamopia indica</i>. F, Pseudodiclidophoridae, <i>Allopseudodiclidophora opelu</i>. G, Chauhaneidae, <i>Cotyloatlantica mediterranea</i>. H, Protomicrocotylidae, <i>Lethacotyle vera</i> n. sp (no clamps). Details in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155#pone-0079155-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clamp", "examples", "drawings"], "article_id"=>860748, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_and_clamp_surfaces_examples_of_line_drawings_in_8_families_/860748", "title"=>"Body and clamp surfaces: examples of line drawings in 8 families.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293502"], "description"=>"<p>Ratio between clamp surface and body surface in species of gastrocotylinean monogeneans. Ratios are ordered in decreasing sequence. Red: protomicrocotylids; blue: species of other families.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clamp", "gastrocotylinean"], "article_id"=>860750, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratio_between_clamp_surface_and_body_surface_in_species_of_gastrocotylinean_monogeneans_/860750", "title"=>"Ratio between clamp surface and body surface in species of gastrocotylinean monogeneans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293503"], "description"=>"<p>Ratio between clamp surface and body surface in families of gastrocotylinean monogeneans. Ratios are ordered in decreasing order of mean. Protomicrocotylids have the lowest mean and lowest minimum. For significance see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155#pone-0079155-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clamp", "gastrocotylinean"], "article_id"=>860751, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratio_between_clamp_surface_and_body_surface_in_families_of_gastrocotylinean_monogeneans_/860751", "title"=>"Ratio between clamp surface and body surface in families of gastrocotylinean monogeneans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293506"], "description"=>"<p><i>Lethacotyle vera</i> n. sp (urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:0B7ABE99-07AF-4088-97F3-1A154DBA614D). A, whole body; B, spines of male copulatory organ (MCO). C, spines of MCO in other specimen (paratype MNHN JNC1189A3). D, sclerotized vagina. E, egg, in utero. F, striations on posterior part of body; G, H, I, hooks (paratype MNHN JNC1185A3). A, B, D, F: holotype, MNHN JNC3209A1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>860754, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lethacotyle_vera_n_sp_Adult_and_details_/860754", "title"=>"<i>Lethacotyle vera</i> n. sp. Adult and details.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293508"], "description"=>"<p><i>Lethacotyle vera</i> n. sp (urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:0B7ABE99-07AF-4088-97F3-1A154DBA614D). A, juvenile (specimen MNHN JNC3188A1). B, spines of MCO in juvenile. C, spines of MCO in paratype MNHN JNC3188A2c (posterior part of body processed for molecular study); D, spines of MCO in paratype MNHN JNC1189A2. E, outline of ovary (paratype JNC1189A1).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["juvenile"], "article_id"=>860756, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lethacotyle_vera_n_sp_Juvenile_and_other_details_/860756", "title"=>"<i>Lethacotyle vera</i> n. sp. Juvenile and other details.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293509"], "description"=>"<p>Tree of gastrocotylinean monogeneans, based on a phylogenetic analysis of 28S sequences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gastrocotylinean"], "article_id"=>860757, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tree_of_gastrocotylinean_monogeneans_/860757", "title"=>"Tree of gastrocotylinean monogeneans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293510"], "description"=>"<p>All measurements are in µm, in the form: mean (minimum–maximum), except for a few measurements with sample >30, for which measurements are in the form: mean ± standard deviation (minimum–maximum).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>860758, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_Lethacotyle_species_/860758", "title"=>"Measurements of <i>Lethacotyle</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293511"], "description"=>"<p>Families are in decreasing order of ratio. P values correspond to Mann & Whitney U tests between each family and the Protomicrocotylidae; all families have a significantly greater ratio than the Protomicrocotylidae, except the Pseudodiclidophoridae.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["differences", "clamp", "ratios", "gastrocotylinean"], "article_id"=>860759, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Significant_differences_of_clamp_surface_body_surface_ratios_in_families_of_gastrocotylinean_monogeneans_/860759", "title"=>"Significant differences of clamp surface: body surface ratios in families of gastrocotylinean monogeneans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293512"], "description"=>"<p>Specimens of <i>Caranx papuensis</i> examined, specimens of <i>Lethacotyle vera</i> n. sp., and results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimens"], "article_id"=>860760, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Specimens_of_Caranx_papuensis_examined_specimens_of_Lethacotyle_vera_n_sp_and_results_/860760", "title"=>"Specimens of <i>Caranx papuensis</i> examined, specimens of <i>Lethacotyle vera</i> n. sp., and results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293513"], "description"=>"<p>The outlines of body and clamps were redrawn on computer from original publications or from our own drawings, and the surface was calculated using ImageJ. Names of species follow WoRMS <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155#pone.0079155-Gibson1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>; if different, name used in publication also indicated. All computerized line drawings available as Supplementary Material. Data ordered in alphabetical order of families and species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clamps", "gastrocotylinean"], "article_id"=>860761, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Surface_of_clamps_and_body_in_species_of_gastrocotylinean_monogeneans_/860761", "title"=>"Surface of clamps and body in species of gastrocotylinean monogeneans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1293514"], "description"=>"<p>Striations and other structures mentioned in protomicrocotylids.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["structures"], "article_id"=>860762, "categories"=>["Information And Computing Sciences", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jean-Lou Justine", "Chahrazed Rahmouni", "Delphine Gey", "Charlotte Schoelinck", "Eric P. Hoberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079155.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Striations_and_other_structures_mentioned_in_protomicrocotylids_/860762", "title"=>"Striations and other structures mentioned in protomicrocotylids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-22 03:06:35"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"96", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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