Chlorine Dioxide Is a Size-Selective Antimicrobial Agent
Publication Date
November 05, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Zoltán Noszticzius, Maria Wittmann, Kristóf Kály Kullai, Zoltán Beregvári, et al
Volume
8
Issue
11
Pages
e79157
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079157
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0079157
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24223899
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3818415
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24223899
Web of Science
000326597400049
Scopus
84892430440
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/chlorine-dioxide-sizeselective-antimicrobial-agent
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Chlorine dioxide is a size-selective antimicrobial agent", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zoltán", "last_name"=>"Noszticzius", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003993200"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria", "last_name"=>"Wittmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004969591"}, {"first_name"=>"Kristóf", "last_name"=>"Kály-Kullai", "scopus_author_id"=>"8849583400"}, {"first_name"=>"Zoltán", "last_name"=>"Beregvári", "scopus_author_id"=>"56001251500"}, {"first_name"=>"István", "last_name"=>"Kiss", "scopus_author_id"=>"57200926800"}, {"first_name"=>"László", "last_name"=>"Rosivall", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006425181"}, {"first_name"=>"János", "last_name"=>"Szegedi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602710012"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372116961", "sgr"=>"84892430440", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24223899", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892430440", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0079157", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"532ad165-7a0f-3939-ab38-a90eb5f0d717", "abstract"=>"Background / AimsClO2, the so-called “ideal biocide”, could also be applied as an antiseptic if it was understood why the solution killing microbes rapidly does not cause any harm to humans or to animals. Our aim was to find the source of that selectivity by studying its reaction-diffusion mechanism both theoretically and experimentally.MethodsClO2 permeation measurements through protein membranes were performed and the time delay of ClO2 transport due to reaction and diffusion was determined. To calculate ClO2 penetration depths and estimate bacterial killing times, approximate solutions of the reaction-diffusion equation were derived. In these calculations evaporation rates of ClO2 were also measured and taken into account.ResultsThe rate law of the reaction-diffusion model predicts that the killing time is proportional to the square of the characteristic size (e.g. diameter) of a body, thus, small ones will be killed extremely fast. For example, the killing time for a bacterium is on the order of milliseconds in a 300 ppm ClO2 solution. Thus, a few minutes of contact time (limited by the volatility of ClO2) is quite enough to kill all bacteria, but short enough to keep ClO2 penetration into the living tissues of a greater organism safely below 0.1 mm, minimizing cytotoxic effects when applying it as an antiseptic. Additional properties of ClO2, advantageous for an antiseptic, are also discussed. Most importantly, that bacteria are not able to develop resistance against ClO2 as it reacts with biological thiols which play a vital role in all living organisms.ConclusionSelectivity of ClO2 between humans and bacteria is based not on their different biochemistry, but on their different size. We hope initiating clinical applications of this promising local antiseptic.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/chlorine-dioxide-sizeselective-antimicrobial-agent", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Chemistry"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>8}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268788"], "description"=>"<p>The two glass parts of the apparatus are held together by a pair of extension clamps (not shown in the Figure) which are fixed to a support stand by clamp holders. The active cross-section of the membranes is 28 cm<sup>2</sup>. See text for the working principle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gelatine", "bladder"], "article_id"=>842229, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Zoltán Noszticzius", "Maria Wittmann", "Kristóf Kály-Kullai", "Zoltán Beregvári", "István Kiss", "László Rosivall", "János Szegedi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079157.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Apparatus_to_measure_ClO_2_transport_through_gelatine_or_pig_bladder_membranes_/842229", "title"=>"Apparatus to measure ClO<sub>2</sub> transport through gelatine or pig bladder membranes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:10:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268789"], "description"=>"<p>Each point in the diagram represents a „black burst” (see Methods). <i>V</i> is the cumulative volume of the 0.01 M Na<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> titrant added before the burst and <i>N</i> is the amount of ClO<sub>2</sub> permeated until time <i>t</i>. <i>T</i><sub><i>L1</i></sub> = 627 s and <i>T</i><sub><i>L2</i></sub> = 175 s are time lags of the first and the second experiments, respectively. The concentration of ClO<sub>2</sub> source in the magnetically stirred aqueous solution was 1360 ppm (mg/kg) or 20.1 mM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gelatin", "membrane"], "article_id"=>842230, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Zoltán Noszticzius", "Maria Wittmann", "Kristóf Kály-Kullai", "Zoltán Beregvári", "István Kiss", "László Rosivall", "János Szegedi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079157.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Permeation_of_ClO_2_through_a_gelatin_membrane_as_a_function_of_time_t_/842230", "title"=>"Permeation of ClO<sub>2</sub> through a gelatin membrane as a function of time <i>t</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:10:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268790"], "description"=>"<p><i>V</i> and <i>N</i> have the same meaning like in Figure 2. <i>T</i><sub><i>L1</i></sub> = 2770 s, <i>T</i><sub><i>L2</i></sub> = 586 s and <i>T</i><sub><i>L3</i></sub> = 226 s are time lags of the experiments performed on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd day, respectively. The concentration of the ClO<sub>2</sub> source was 946 ppm (14.0 mM) in these experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bladder", "membrane"], "article_id"=>842231, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Zoltán Noszticzius", "Maria Wittmann", "Kristóf Kály-Kullai", "Zoltán Beregvári", "István Kiss", "László Rosivall", "János Szegedi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079157.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Permeation_of_ClO_2_through_a_pig_bladder_membrane_as_a_function_of_time_t_/842231", "title"=>"Permeation of ClO<sub>2</sub> through a pig bladder membrane as a function of time <i>t</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:10:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268791"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background / Aims</p><p>ClO<sub>2</sub>, the so-called “ideal biocide”, could also be applied as an antiseptic if it was understood why the solution killing microbes rapidly does not cause any harm to humans or to animals. Our aim was to find the source of that selectivity by studying its reaction-diffusion mechanism both theoretically and experimentally.</p> <p>Methods</p><p>ClO<sub>2</sub> permeation measurements through protein membranes were performed and the time delay of ClO<sub>2</sub> transport due to reaction and diffusion was determined. To calculate ClO<sub>2</sub> penetration depths and estimate bacterial killing times, approximate solutions of the reaction-diffusion equation were derived. In these calculations evaporation rates of ClO<sub>2</sub> were also measured and taken into account.</p> <p>Results</p><p>The rate law of the reaction-diffusion model predicts that the killing time is proportional to the square of the characteristic size (e.g. diameter) of a body, thus, small ones will be killed extremely fast. For example, the killing time for a bacterium is on the order of milliseconds in a 300 ppm ClO<sub>2</sub> solution. Thus, a few minutes of contact time (limited by the volatility of ClO<sub>2</sub>) is quite enough to kill all bacteria, but short enough to keep ClO<sub>2</sub> penetration into the living tissues of a greater organism safely below 0.1 mm, minimizing cytotoxic effects when applying it as an antiseptic. Additional properties of ClO<sub>2</sub>, advantageous for an antiseptic, are also discussed. Most importantly, that bacteria are not able to develop resistance against ClO<sub>2</sub> as it reacts with biological thiols which play a vital role in all living organisms.</p> <p>Conclusion</p><p>Selectivity of ClO<sub>2</sub> between humans and bacteria is based not on their different biochemistry, but on their different size. We hope initiating clinical applications of this promising local antiseptic.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dioxide", "size-selective", "antimicrobial"], "article_id"=>842232, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Zoltán Noszticzius", "Maria Wittmann", "Kristóf Kály-Kullai", "Zoltán Beregvári", "István Kiss", "László Rosivall", "János Szegedi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079157"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chlorine_Dioxide_Is_a_Size_Selective_Antimicrobial_Agent_/842232", "title"=>"Chlorine Dioxide Is a Size-Selective Antimicrobial Agent", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:10:59"}

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