Comparative Patterns of Plant Invasions in the Mediterranean Biome
Publication Date
November 14, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Margarita Arianoutsou, Pinelopi Delipetrou, Montserrat Vilà, Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos, et al
Volume
8
Issue
11
Pages
e79174
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0079174
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24244443
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828305
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24244443
Web of Science
000327143800038
Scopus
84893689567
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparative-patterns-plant-invasions-mediterranean-biome
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Comparative patterns of plant invasions in the mediterranean biome", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Margarita", "last_name"=>"Arianoutsou", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602508134"}, {"first_name"=>"Pinelopi", "last_name"=>"Delipetrou", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506286161"}, {"first_name"=>"Montserrat", "last_name"=>"Vilà", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103149928"}, {"first_name"=>"Panayiotis G.", "last_name"=>"Dimitrakopoulos", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701366909"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura", "last_name"=>"Celesti-Grapow", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507672833"}, {"first_name"=>"Grant", "last_name"=>"Wardell-Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603805322"}, {"first_name"=>"Lesley", "last_name"=>"Henderson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202442270"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicol", "last_name"=>"Fuentes", "scopus_author_id"=>"24315032600"}, {"first_name"=>"Eduardo", "last_name"=>"Ugarte-Mendes", "scopus_author_id"=>"56029515100"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip W.", "last_name"=>"Rundel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004152561"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372334586", "sgr"=>"84893689567", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24244443", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893689567", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0079174", "isbn"=>"2003506675"}, "id"=>"6838dd36-7c36-384d-a095-653df3823d2f", "abstract"=>"The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world's five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparative-patterns-plant-invasions-mediterranean-biome", "reader_count"=>50, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>19, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>19}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282416"], "description"=>"<p>Totals represent the total number of species in each country and in each habitat. Percentages (in brackets) are calculated on the basis of the total number of plants in the last row. Empty cells denote that there are no alien species records but habitat category occurs in the region; dash (–) denotes that the habitat category is absent from the region.</p><p>For Australia details are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174#pone.0079174.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S1</a> with habitat categories.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["naturalized", "invading", "mediterranean-climate"], "article_id"=>851899, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_naturalized_species_invading_each_habitat_category_identified_in_the_five_mediterranean_climate_regions_/851899", "title"=>"Number of naturalized species invading each habitat category identified in the five mediterranean-climate regions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282415"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in parenthesis are percentage values within a region.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["naturalized", "mediterranean"], "article_id"=>851898, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Life_history_traits_of_naturalized_plant_species_for_each_of_the_five_mediterranean_climate_regions_/851898", "title"=>"Life history traits of naturalized plant species for each of the five mediterranean climate regions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282397"], "description"=>"<p><b>1a</b>) The South African geophytic species <i>Oxalis pes-caprae</i> in Lesbos island, Greece, Mediterranean basin; <b>1b</b>) The South African succulent species <i>Carpobrotus edulis</i> in California, USA; 1c) The Eurasian biennial herbs <i>Echium plantagineum</i> and <i>E. vulgare</i> in Región del Maule, Central Chile; <b>1d</b>) The South African geophyte, <i>Watsonia meriana</i> var. <i>bulbillifera</i> on a granite outcrop in south-western Australia; <b>1e</b>) The Mediterranean basin region herb, <i>Centranthus ruber</i> in the Cape Region, South Africa; and <b>1f</b>) The tall Eurasian grass, <i>Arundo donax</i> in a Californian riparian system. Each of these species have become naturalised in multiple Mediterranean-climate regions. Photo credits Panayiotis Dimitrakopoulos <b>1a</b>; Philip Rundel <b>1b</b>, <b>1f</b>; Nicol Fuentes <b>1c</b>; Grant Wardell-Johnson <b>1d</b>; Lesley Henderson <b>1e</b>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["naturalized", "herbs", "geophytes", "mediterranean-climate"], "article_id"=>851880, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_naturalized_alien_herbs_and_geophytes_in_the_five_mediterranean_climate_regions_/851880", "title"=>"Examples of naturalized alien herbs and geophytes in the five mediterranean-climate regions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282409"], "description"=>"<p>CA: California, CL: Chile, MB: Mediterranean Basin; SA: South Africa; SWA: SW Australia. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174#pone-0079174-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a> for explanation of habitat acronyms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["multidimensional", "scaling", "ordination", "taxonomic", "differences", "naturalized", "habitats", "mediterranean-climate", "regions"], "article_id"=>851892, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Non_metric_multidimensional_scaling_ordination_NMDS_stress_8202_8202_0_18_showing_taxonomic_differences_in_naturalized_species_among_habitats_in_each_of_the_five_mediterranean_climate_regions_MCRs_/851892", "title"=>"Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination (NMDS), (stress = 0.18) showing taxonomic differences in naturalized species among habitats in each of the five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282406"], "description"=>"<p><b>2a</b>) The southern USA succulent shrub <i>Opuntia ficus-barbarica</i> in abandoned grazed lands, Stylida, Greece, Mediterranean Basin; <b>2b</b>) The Mediterranean basin region shrub, <i>Spartium junceum</i> in the Cape Region, South Africa; <b>2c</b>) The central Eurasian tree <i>Tamarix ramossissima</i>, in coastal California; <b>2d</b>) Two Australian shrub species, <i>Hakea gibbosa</i> and <i>Acacia longifolia</i> in the Cape Region, South Africa; <b>2e</b>) The European spiny fabaceous shrub, <i>Ulex europaeus</i> in Chillán, Región del BioBio; and <b>2f</b>) The east Asian tree <i>Ailanthus altissima</i> in central Greece, Mediterranean Basin. Each of these species have become naturalised in multiple Mediterranean-climate regions. Photo credits Margarita Arianoutsou <b>2a</b>, <b>2f</b>; Lesley Henderson <b>2b</b>, <b>2d</b>; Philip Rundel <b>2c;</b> Jonathan Urrutia <b>2e</b>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["naturalised", "shrub", "mediterranean-climate"], "article_id"=>851889, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_naturalised_alien_shrub_and_tree_species_in_the_five_mediterranean_climate_regions_/851889", "title"=>"Examples of naturalised alien shrub and tree species in the five mediterranean-climate regions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282418", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282419", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282420"], "description"=>"<div><p>The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world’s five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patterns", "invasions", "mediterranean"], "article_id"=>851901, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_Patterns_of_Plant_Invasions_in_the_Mediterranean_Biome_/851901", "title"=>"Comparative Patterns of Plant Invasions in the Mediterranean Biome", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282417"], "description"=>"<p>Percentages (in brackets) are calculated on the basis of the total number of plants in the last row. Note that the same taxon might appear as different growth form in each region and this explains the difference in total plants per habitat compared to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174#pone-0079174-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["naturalized", "occurring", "mediterranean-climate"], "article_id"=>851900, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_naturalized_species_occurring_in_each_habitat_category_identified_in_the_five_mediterranean_climate_regions_regardless_of_the_region_/851900", "title"=>"Number of naturalized species occurring in each habitat category identified in the five mediterranean-climate regions, regardless of the region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282414"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in parenthesis are percentages within a region.</p>*<p><i>Mediterranean Basin and one region in Europe or Asia or N. Africa.</i></p>**<p><i>Regions in Africa and</i>/or <i>Europe and/or Asia.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["naturalized", "mediterranean-climate", "regions"], "article_id"=>851897, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_naturalized_plant_species_in_the_five_mediterranean_climate_regions_according_to_their_native_origin_/851897", "title"=>"Number of naturalized plant species in the five mediterranean-climate regions according to their native origin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282412"], "description"=>"<p>Areas in 10<sup>6</sup> km<sup>2</sup> (Cowling et al. 1996): California = 0.32; Chile = 0.14; Mediterranean Basin = 0.93 (for the 4 countries studied); South Africa = 0.09 SW Australia = 0.31.</p><p>The geographical distribution of the five MCRs included in this study is depicted in citation <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174#pone.0079174-Cowling1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["naturalized", "mediterranean-climate", "regions", "occurring", "parenthesis", "pooled"], "article_id"=>851895, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_naturalized_species_for_each_of_the_five_mediterranean_climate_regions_a_number_of_species_occurring_in_more_than_one_of_the_five_regions_with_indication_of_their_percentage_in_parenthesis_b_and_pooled_number_of_species_c_/851895", "title"=>"Number of naturalized species for each of the five mediterranean-climate regions (a), number of species occurring in more than one of the five regions with indication of their percentage in parenthesis (b), and pooled number of species (c).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282413"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in bold correspond to the number of species existing only in the assigned region. Numbers appearing in parentheses are percentages of the total number of aliens of the country in the same row.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["numbers", "naturalized", "mediterranean-climate", "regions"], "article_id"=>851896, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pair_wise_numbers_of_shared_naturalized_species_in_the_five_mediterranean_climate_regions_of_the_world_/851896", "title"=>"Pair-wise numbers of shared naturalized species in the five mediterranean-climate regions of the world.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282411"], "description"=>"<p>See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174#pone-0079174-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a> for explanation of habitat acronyms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["curtis", "mediterranean-climate", "regions", "habitats", "naturalized", "types"], "article_id"=>851894, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>67, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dendrogram_Bray_Curtis_metric_UPGMA_showing_similarity_of_mediterranean_climate_regions_habitats_based_on_the_basis_of_naturalized_species_between_habitat_types_regardless_of_region_/851894", "title"=>"Dendrogram (Bray Curtis metric, UPGMA) showing similarity of mediterranean-climate regions habitats based on the basis of naturalized species between habitat types regardless of region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1282408"], "description"=>"<p>Naturalized alien species similarity across the five regions of the mediterraean biome.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regions", "mediterraean"], "article_id"=>851891, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Margarita Arianoutsou", "Pinelopi Delipetrou", "Montserrat Vilà", "Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos", "Laura Celesti-Grapow", "Grant Wardell-Johnson", "Lesley Henderson", "Nicol Fuentes", "Eduardo Ugarte-Mendes", "Philip W. Rundel"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079174.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Naturalized_alien_species_similarity_across_the_five_regions_of_the_mediterraean_biome_/851891", "title"=>"Naturalized alien species similarity across the five regions of the mediterraean biome.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:03:39"}

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Relative Metric

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