Bonobos Protect and Console Friends and Kin
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{"title"=>"Bonobos protect and console friends and kin", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elisabetta", "last_name"=>"Palagi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602364981"}, {"first_name"=>"Ivan", "last_name"=>"Norscia", "scopus_author_id"=>"23100664200"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24223924", "pui"=>"372116972", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892418685", "sgr"=>"84892418685", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0079290"}, "id"=>"82844f9e-80b6-3c1f-8b5e-0aa6f49afb58", "abstract"=>"Post-conflict third-party affiliation has been reported to have different functional meanings, one of them being consolation. Here, we tested the main hypotheses that have been put forth to explain the presence of this phenomenon at a functional level in the bonobo: Self-Protection Hypothesis, Victim-Protection Hypothesis, Relationship-Repair or Substitute for Reconciliation Hypothesis, and Consolation Hypothesis. By analyzing the data collected over 10 years, we investigated what factors affected the distribution of both spontaneous third party affiliation (initiated by the bystander) and solicited third party affiliation (initiated by the victim). We considered factors related to the individual features (sex, rank, age) of victim and bystander, their relationship quality (kinship, affiliation), and the effect that third party affiliation had on the victim (such as protection against further attacks and anxiety reduction). Both spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation reduced the probability of further aggression by group members on the victim (Victim-Protection Hypothesis supported). Yet, only spontaneous affiliation reduced victim anxiety (measured via self-scratching), thus suggesting that the spontaneous gesture--more than the protection itself--works in calming the distressed subject. The victim may perceive the motivational autonomy of the bystander, who does not require an invitation to provide post-conflict affiliative contact. Moreover, spontaneous--but not solicited--third party affiliation was affected by the bond between consoler and victim, being the relationship between consoler and aggressor irrelevant to the phenomenon distribution (Consolation Hypothesis supported). Spontaneous affiliation followed the empathic gradient described for humans, being mostly offered to kin, then friends, then acquaintances. Overall, our findings do not only indicate the consolatory function of spontaneous third-party affiliation but they also suggest that consolation in the bonobo may be an empathy-based phenomenon.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bonobos-protect-console-friends-kin", "reader_count"=>46, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>11, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>11}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269260"], "description"=>"<p>Bar graphs of consolation frequency (number of spontaneous third party affiliation events normalized on the number of opportunities, which equaled the number of PCs in which one individual was the recipient, excluding those in which the third-party was involved in the conflict) for bonobo dyads falling into three relationship quality categories: Non-kin weak; Non-kin strong; Kin (with r≥0.25).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>842548, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elisabetta Palagi", "Ivan Norscia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079290.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Consolation_frequency_and_relationship_quality_/842548", "title"=>"Consolation frequency and relationship quality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:42:07"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269263"], "description"=>"<p>Best LMM explaining the frequency of spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation as a function of the relationship quality between aggressor and bystander features and relationship quality.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lmm", "explaining", "spontaneous", "solicited", "affiliation", "aggressor", "bystander"], "article_id"=>842551, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elisabetta Palagi", "Ivan Norscia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079290.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Best_LMM_explaining_the_frequency_of_spontaneous_and_solicited_third_party_affiliation_as_a_function_of_the_relationship_quality_between_aggressor_and_bystander_features_and_relationship_quality_/842551", "title"=>"Best LMM explaining the frequency of spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation as a function of the relationship quality between aggressor and bystander features and relationship quality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:42:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269264"], "description"=>"<p>Description of the variables used in the LMM analyses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["variables", "lmm"], "article_id"=>842552, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elisabetta Palagi", "Ivan Norscia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079290.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_the_variables_used_in_the_LMM_analyses_/842552", "title"=>"Description of the variables used in the LMM analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:42:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269262"], "description"=>"<p>Box plots of frequency of the repeated aggression towards victims after spontaneous affiliative contact (PC-cont), after solicited affiliative contact (PC-sol), and in absence of affiliative contacts (PC-no cont). Solid horizontal lines indicate medians; box length corresponds to the interquartile range; thin horizontal lines indicate the observed value range. Double asterisk and “ns” indicate highly significant (p<0.01, **) and non-significant results respectively. Results were obtained via Dunnett's post-hoc test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>842550, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elisabetta Palagi", "Ivan Norscia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079290.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Repeated_aggression_in_presence_and_absence_of_third_party_affiliation_/842550", "title"=>"Repeated aggression in presence and absence of third party affiliation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:42:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1269271"], "description"=>"<div><p>Post-conflict third-party affiliation has been reported to have different functional meanings, one of them being consolation. Here, we tested the main hypotheses that have been put forth to explain the presence of this phenomenon at a functional level in the bonobo: <i>Self-Protection Hypothesis, Victim-Protection Hypothesis, Relationship-Repair</i> or <i>Substitute for Reconciliation Hypothesis</i>, and <i>Consolation Hypothesis</i>. By analyzing the data collected over 10 years, we investigated what factors affected the distribution of both spontaneous third party affiliation (initiated by the bystander) and solicited third party affiliation (initiated by the victim). We considered factors related to the individual features (sex, rank, age) of victim and bystander, their relationship quality (kinship, affiliation), and the effect that third party affiliation had on the victim (such as protection against further attacks and anxiety reduction). Both spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation reduced the probability of further aggression by group members on the victim (<i>Victim-Protection Hypothesis</i> supported). Yet, only spontaneous affiliation reduced victim anxiety (measured via self-scratching), thus suggesting that the spontaneous gesture – more than the protection itself – works in calming the distressed subject. The victim may perceive the motivational autonomy of the bystander, who does not require an invitation to provide post-conflict affiliative contact. Moreover, spontaneous - but not solicited - third party affiliation was affected by the bond between consoler and victim, being the relationship between consoler and aggressor irrelevant to the phenomenon distribution (<i>Consolation Hypothesis</i> supported). Spontaneous affiliation followed the empathic gradient described for humans, being mostly offered to kin, then friends, then acquaintances. Overall, our findings do not only indicate the consolatory function of spontaneous third-party affiliation but they also suggest that consolation in the bonobo may be an empathy-based phenomenon.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["console", "friends"], "article_id"=>842559, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Elisabetta Palagi", "Ivan Norscia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079290", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bonobos_Protect_and_Console_Friends_and_Kin_/842559", "title"=>"Bonobos Protect and Console Friends and Kin", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 03:42:07"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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