Diet-Induced Obesity Reduces the Responsiveness of the Peripheral Taste Receptor Cells
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{"title"=>"Diet-induced obesity reduces the responsiveness of the peripheral taste receptor cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Amanda B.", "last_name"=>"Maliphol", "scopus_author_id"=>"55778080200"}, {"first_name"=>"Deborah J.", "last_name"=>"Garth", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507592745"}, {"first_name"=>"Kathryn F.", "last_name"=>"Medler", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602784559"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893367929", "sgr"=>"84893367929", "pui"=>"372245015", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24236129", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0079403"}, "id"=>"d74c92f0-1f42-325c-bfe2-413c6a04e62e", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic that causes many serious health related complications. While the causes of obesity are complex, there is conclusive evidence that overconsumption coupled with a sedentary lifestyle is the primary cause of this medical condition. Dietary consumption is controlled by appetite which is in turn regulated by multiple neuronal systems, including the taste system. However, the relationship between taste and obesity has not been well defined. Growing evidence suggests that taste perception in the brain is altered in obese animals and humans, however no studies have determined if there are altered taste responses in the peripheral taste receptor cells, which is the initiation site for the detection and perception of taste stimuli.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we used C57Bl/6 mice which readily become obese when placed on a high fat diet. After ten weeks on the high fat diet, we used calcium imaging to measure how taste-evoked calcium signals were affected in the obese mice. We found that significantly fewer taste receptor cells were responsive to some appetitive taste stimuli while the numbers of taste cells that were sensitive to aversive taste stimuli did not change. Properties of the taste-evoked calcium signals were also significantly altered in the obese mice. Behavioral analyses found that mice on the high fat diet had reduced ability to detect some taste stimuli compared to their littermate controls.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate that diet-induced obesity significantly influences peripheral taste receptor cell signals which likely leads to changes in the central taste system and may cause altered taste perception.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/dietinduced-obesity-reduces-responsiveness-peripheral-taste-receptor-cells", "reader_count"=>69, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>4, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>9, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>16}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>9}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Brazil"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279303"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Amplitudes of the taste-evoked calcium responses were measured as a percent increase over baseline. Amplitudes were significantly reduced in obese mice for the sweet stimuli tested (2 mM Sac, 20 mM AceK) and one aversive stimulus, denatonium (5 mM). Response amplitudes of the measured umami (20 mM MPG) stimuli were not different between obese mice and their littermate controls. (B) Response amplitudes were significantly lower in both obese males and obese females for the sweet and bitter stimuli tested (***, p<0.001; **, p<0.01) with the exception of the AceK responses in obese males (p = 0.06). Average peak values (% increase over baseline) for each stimulus as shown in B: MPG, Ctl = 18.6, males = 15.7, females = 17; SAC, Ctl = 74.2, males = 19.1, females = 8.2; ACEK, Ctl = 37.8, males = 21.1, females = 7.9; DEN, Ctl = 59.8, males = 12.4, females = 22.1. (C) A proportional measurement of calcium signals were represented by the integrated area under the curve. The overall calcium responses to the sweet stimuli were significantly smaller in obese mice compared to controls. There was no difference found for the umami stimulus (20 mM MPG) or the bitter stimulus (5 mM denatonium). (D) The integrated areas of taste evoked responses for the obese males and obese females were significantly reduced for the sweet taste stimuli tested compared to control responses (***, p<0.001; **, p<0.01; *, p<0.05). No differences were found for the umami stimulus, MPG or the bitter stimulus, denatonium. Average AUC values (arbitrary units) for each stimulus as shown in D: MPG, Ctl = 14.1, males = 11.9, females = 10.8; SAC, Ctl = 22.8, males = 5.9, females = 6.6; ACEK, Ctl = 29.2, males = 4, females = 10.3; DEN, Ctl = 7.4, males = 6.4, females = 9.3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["signals", "altered", "obese"], "article_id"=>849533, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amanda B. Maliphol", "Deborah J. Garth", "Kathryn F. Medler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079403.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Calcium_signals_are_altered_in_obese_mice_/849533", "title"=>"Calcium signals are altered in obese mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:47:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279304"], "description"=>"<p>(A) For the sweet stimulus AceK, the ability to detect this sweetener at higher concentrations was impaired in obese mice compared to controls (**, p<0.01). (B) For saccharin, obese mice were significantly impaired in their ability to detect this sweet stimulus at the lower concentrations tested (*, p<0.05) but were not significantly different in their preferences from controls at higher saccharin concentrations. (C) Control mice showed an increased preference for the umami stimulus, MPG, at the highest concentration but no significant differences between normal and obese mice were measured (p = 0.056). (D) The ability to avoid denatonium at the highest concentration was compromised in obese mice (*, p<0.05) compared to littermate controls. (E) Obese mice were comparable to wild type control mice in their preference for sucrose except for the highest concentration of sucrose tested (300 mM). At this concentration, control mice had a very strong significantly higher preference for sucrose compared to the obese mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ratios", "stimuli", "altered", "obese"], "article_id"=>849534, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amanda B. Maliphol", "Deborah J. Garth", "Kathryn F. Medler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079403.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Preference_ratios_for_taste_stimuli_are_altered_in_obese_mice_/849534", "title"=>"Preference ratios for taste stimuli are altered in obese mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:47:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279301"], "description"=>"<p>Chi-square analysis was used to compare the percentage of responsive taste receptor cells between normal and obese mice. (A) Bar graphs represent the percentages of taste-evoked calcium responses to each taste stimuli. The number of responsive taste cells for the sweet stimuli (2 mM Sac, 20 mM AceK) were significantly reduced for the obese mice (black bar) compared to controls (gray bar) (***, p<0.001; **, p<0.01; *, p<0.05). The numbers of taste-evoked calcium responses to the umami taste stimuli (20 mM MPG) and the aversive bitter stimuli (5 mM Den) were not significantly different between the two groups. (B) When obese mice were analyzed by sex, both males and females were significantly less responsive to the sweet taste stimuli tested compared to control mice (***, p<0.001; **, p<0.01; *, p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cells", "stimuli", "obese"], "article_id"=>849531, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amanda B. Maliphol", "Deborah J. Garth", "Kathryn F. Medler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079403.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fewer_taste_cells_are_sensitive_to_sweet_taste_stimuli_in_obese_mice_/849531", "title"=>"Fewer taste cells are sensitive to sweet taste stimuli in obese mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:47:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279302"], "description"=>"<p>Representative taste evoked calcium signals are shown from both control (A–D) and obese (E–H) mice for multiple taste stimuli: umami (20 mM MPG, A, E); sweet (2 mM Saccharin, B, F and 20 mM AceK, C, G); and bitter (5 mM denatonium, D, H).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["evoked", "calcium", "signals", "altered", "obese"], "article_id"=>849532, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amanda B. Maliphol", "Deborah J. Garth", "Kathryn F. Medler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079403.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Taste_evoked_calcium_signals_are_altered_in_obese_mice_/849532", "title"=>"Taste evoked calcium signals are altered in obese mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:47:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279300"], "description"=>"<p>After two weeks, mice on the high fat diet (black line) began to show rapid weight gain compared to their littermate controls on normal diet (gray lines), n = 25 for each group. Weights were recorded weekly and the average weights are reported here with standard error bars (SEM) for both female (A) and male (B). By week two, males on the high fat diet are significantly heavier than their male littermate controls (p<0.01) and continued to be significantly heavier throughout the rest of the study. By week three, female mice on the high fat diet were significantly heavier than their female littermate controls (p<0.01) and remained significantly heavier for the rest of the study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["obese", "compared"], "article_id"=>849530, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amanda B. Maliphol", "Deborah J. Garth", "Kathryn F. Medler"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079403.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mice_on_a_high_fat_diet_become_obese_compared_to_control_mice_/849530", "title"=>"Mice on a high fat diet become obese compared to control mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:47:48"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[256, 428]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[272, 472, 600, 713, 815, 911, 1004, 1094, 1185, 1273, 1358, 1441]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[264, 463, 602, 708, 816, 908, 1015, 1103, 1200, 1297, 1389, 1476, 1538]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[284, 458, 579, 688, 782, 879, 957, 1048, 1126, 1204, 1280, 1357, 1415]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}]}
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