Combining Stressors That Individually Impede Long-Term Memory Blocks All Memory Processes
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{"title"=>"Combining stressors that individually impede long-term memory blocks all memory processes", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sarah", "last_name"=>"Dalesman", "scopus_author_id"=>"12789303100"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiroshi", "last_name"=>"Sunada", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006621330"}, {"first_name"=>"Morgan Lee", "last_name"=>"Teskey", "scopus_author_id"=>"55656402600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ken", "last_name"=>"Lukowiak", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005303115"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892377824", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0079561", "pui"=>"372116210", "sgr"=>"84892377824", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24223180"}, "id"=>"da1e3267-1fa2-3619-bf45-96672592738b", "abstract"=>"The effects of stress on memory are typically assessed individually; however, in reality different stressors are often experienced simultaneously. Here we determined the effect that two environmentally relevant stressors, crowding and low calcium availability, have on memory and neural activity following operant conditioning of aerial respiration in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We measured aerial breathing behaviour and activity of a neuron necessary for memory formation, right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1), in the central pattern generator (CPG) that drives aerial respiration in untrained animals, and assessed how these traits changed following training. In naïve animals both crowding and combined stressors significantly depressed burst activity in RPeD1 which correlated with a depression in aerial breathing behaviour, whereas low calcium availability had no effect on RPeD1 activity. Following training, changes in burst activity in RPeD1 correlated with behavioural changes, decreasing relative to their naïve state at 3 h and 24 h in control conditions when both intermediate-term memory (ITM: 3 h) and long-term memory (LTM: 24 h) are formed, at 3 h but not 24 h when exposed to individual stressors when only ITM is formed, and did not change in combined stressors (i.e. when no memory is formed). Additionally, we also found that Lymnaea formed short-term memory (STM: 10 min) in the presence of individual stressors or under control conditions, but failed to do so in the presence of combined stressors. Our data demonstrate that by combining stressors that individually block LTM only we can block all memory processes. Therefore the effects of two stressors with similar individual affects on memory phenotype may be additive when experienced in combination.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/combining-stressors-individually-impede-longterm-memory-blocks-memory-processes", "reader_count"=>19, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1270386"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (± SEM) number of pneumostome opening attempts during training (TR1 and TR2) and the test for intermediate-term memory 3 h following training (A to D: test @ 3 h) or long-term memory 24 h following training (E to H: test @ 24 h). <i>Lymnaea</i> were exposed to:control conditions (white bars: A: N = 18; E: N = 13); low calcium availability (pale grey bars: B: N = 18; F: N = 12); crowding (dark grey bars: C: N = 18; G: N = 12) or a combination of low calcium availability and crowded conditions (black bars: D: N = 18; H: N = 12). **  =  significant difference between the first training session (TR1) and second training session (TR2) or the memory test (P<0.01, paired t-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intermediate-term"], "article_id"=>843293, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sarah Dalesman", "Hiroshi Sunada", "Morgan Lee Teskey", "Ken Lukowiak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079561.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behavioural_assessment_of_intermediate_term_and_long_term_memory_/843293", "title"=>"Behavioural assessment of intermediate-term and long-term memory.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 03:29:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1270387"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (±SEM) burst activity in RPeD1 in naïve <i>Lymnaea</i>, 3 h following training (i.e. representing intermediate-term memory test) and 24 h following training (i.e. representing long-term memory test) following exposure to: A) control conditions (white bars: naïve: N = 11; ITM: N = 9; LTM: N = 9); B) low calcium availability (pale grey bars: naïve: N = 10; ITM: N = 7; LTM: N = 6); C) crowding (dark grey bars: naïve: N = 9; ITM: N = 10; LTM: N = 10) or D) a combination of low calcium availability and crowded conditions (black bars: naïve: N = 9; ITM: N = 13; LTM: N = 10). *  =  significant difference between naïve and trained bursting behaviour (P<0.05: SNK test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["trained"], "article_id"=>843294, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sarah Dalesman", "Hiroshi Sunada", "Morgan Lee Teskey", "Ken Lukowiak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079561.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RPeD1_burst_activity_in_na_ve_versus_trained_Lymnaea_/843294", "title"=>"RPeD1 burst activity in naïve versus trained <i>Lymnaea</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 03:29:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1270384"], "description"=>"<p><i>Lymnaea</i> demonstrated memory at all three time periods following operant conditioning, but breathing attempts during the memory test did not differ significantly from the number of stimuli during Y1 following yoked-control training (STM: N = 12; ITM: N = 18; LTM: N = 13). **  =  significantly different from Y1 or TR1 (P<0.01, paired t-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["operantly", "trained", "yoked", "procedures"], "article_id"=>843291, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sarah Dalesman", "Hiroshi Sunada", "Morgan Lee Teskey", "Ken Lukowiak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079561.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_between_operantly_trained_and_yoked_training_procedures_in_control_conditions_/843291", "title"=>"Comparison between operantly trained and yoked training procedures in control conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 03:29:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1270385"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (± SEM) number of pneumostome opening attempts during training (TR1) and the test for short-term memory 10 min following training (MT @ 10 min). <i>Lymnaea</i> were exposed to: A) control conditions (white bars; N = 12); B) low calcium availability (pale grey bars; N = 13); C) crowding (dark grey bars; N = 13) or D) a combination of low calcium availability and crowded conditions (black bars; N = 12). **  =  significant difference between training and the memory test (P<0.01, paired t-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>843292, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sarah Dalesman", "Hiroshi Sunada", "Morgan Lee Teskey", "Ken Lukowiak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079561.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behavioural_assessment_of_short_term_memory_STM_/843292", "title"=>"Behavioural assessment of short-term memory (STM).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 03:29:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1270382"], "description"=>"<p>RPeD1 burst activity in naïve <i>Lymnaea</i>. A) Mean (±SEM) burst activity in untrained <i>Lymnaea</i> following exposure to control conditions (white bars: N = 11), low calcium availability (pale grey bars: N = 10), crowding (dark grey bars: N = 9) or a combination of low calcium availability and crowded conditions (black bars: N = 9). Representative traces show burst activity in RPeD1 over 10 min in naïve <i>Lymnaea</i> exposed to B) control conditions, which did not differ significantly from those exposed to low calcium only; and C) combined stressors, which did not differ significantly from those exposed to crowding only. Breathing activity in untrained <i>Lymnaea</i> 1 week prior to exposure (pre-obs) and 3 h following exposure (post-obs) to D) control conditions (N = 12) or E) combined stressors (N = 12). Control animals did not alter their breathing rate, whereas combined stressors significantly depressed aerial breathing behaviour.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rped1", "behaviour", "post-stress"], "article_id"=>843289, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sarah Dalesman", "Hiroshi Sunada", "Morgan Lee Teskey", "Ken Lukowiak"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079561.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burst_activity_in_RPeD1_and_breathing_behaviour_3_h_post_stress_exposure_/843289", "title"=>"Burst activity in RPeD1 and breathing behaviour 3 h post-stress exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-06 03:29:51"}

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Relative Metric

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