Pelvis of Gargoyleosaurus (Dinosauria: Ankylosauria) and the Origin and Evolution of the Ankylosaur Pelvis
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{"title"=>"Pelvis of Gargoyleosaurus (Dinosauria: Ankylosauria) and the origin and evolution of the ankylosaur pelvis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kenneth", "last_name"=>"Carpenter", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202706691"}, {"first_name"=>"Tony", "last_name"=>"DiCroce", "scopus_author_id"=>"56034586800"}, {"first_name"=>"Billy", "last_name"=>"Kinneer", "scopus_author_id"=>"56035754400"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert", "last_name"=>"Simon", "scopus_author_id"=>"56035557900"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24244573", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0079887", "pui"=>"372368684", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84893898419", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893898419"}, "id"=>"df182935-2c65-39f8-b940-af6a80fef77f", "abstract"=>"Discovery of a pelvis attributed to the Late Jurassic armor-plated dinosaur Gargoyleosaurus sheds new light on the origin of the peculiar non-vertical, broad, flaring pelvis of ankylosaurs. It further substantiates separation of the two ankylosaurs from the Morrison Formation of the western United States, Gargoyleosaurus and Mymoorapelta. Although horizontally oriented and lacking the medial curve of the preacetabular process seen in Mymoorapelta, the new ilium shows little of the lateral flaring seen in the pelvis of Cretaceous ankylosaurs. Comparison with the basal thyreophoran Scelidosaurus demonstrates that the ilium in ankylosaurs did not develop entirely by lateral rotation as is commonly believed. Rather, the preacetabular process rotated medially and ventrally and the postacetabular process rotated in opposition, i.e., lateral and ventrally. Thus, the dorsal surfaces of the preacetabular and postacetabular processes are not homologous. In contrast, a series of juvenile Stegosaurus ilia show that the postacetabular process rotated dorsally ontogenetically. Thus, the pelvis of the two major types of Thyreophora most likely developed independently. Examination of other ornithischians show that a non-vertical ilium had developed independently in several different lineages, including ceratopsids, pachycephalosaurs, and iguanodonts. Therefore, a separate origin for the non-vertical ilium in stegosaurs and ankylosaurs does have precedent.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/pelvis-gargoyleosaurus-dinosauria-ankylosauria-origin-evolution-ankylosaur-pelvis", "reader_count"=>11, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>6, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282326/Figure_1.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Views in: A, dorsal; B, ventral; C, right lateral; D, left lateral; E, anterior; and F, posterior. Scales in cm. Abbreviations: a – acetabulum; cd1 – caudal vertebra 1; cdr – caudal rib; ip – ischial peduncle; lp – lateral process; pac – postacetabular crest; paf – postacetabular fossa; poap – postacetabular process; pp – pubic penducle; prap - preacetabular process; prc – preacetabular crest; prs – preacetabular shelf; ps1-3 – presacral vertebrae 1-3; psr – presacral vertebrae ribs; s1-4 – sacral vertebrae 1-4; sr – sacral rib(s); sra – sacral rib backing of acetabulum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pelvis"], "article_id"=>851825, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_New_pelvis_of_Gargoyleosaurus_parkpinorum_DMNH_58831_/851825", "title"=>"New pelvis of <i>Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum</i> (DMNH 58831).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282327/Figure_2.tif"], "description"=>"<p>A, holotype specimen (DMNH 27726) shown on a mounted skeleton of the holotype; B, referred specimen (DMNH 58831). Note that both share having three osteoderms arranged in an arc. The only significant difference are the smaller osteoderms that have attached themselves along the posterior side of larger specimen; this is probably ontogenetic. Scale in cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["half-rings"], "article_id"=>851826, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Cervical_half_rings_of_Gargoyleosaurus_/851826", "title"=>"Cervical half-rings of <i>Gargoyleosaurus</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282329/Figure_3.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Views in: A, dorsal; B, ventral; C, right lateral; D, left lateral; E, anterior; and F, posterior. G, juvenile pelvis (BMNH 6704). In E, the prepacetabular process can be seen rotated (arrow) so that the medial surface faces ventromedially, and in F, the postacetabular process has rotated in opposition (arrow); See also Fig. 10. Scale in cm. Abbreviations: a – acetabulum; al – acetabular lamina; bs – brevis shelf; ilp – ilial peduncle; ip – ischial peduncle; is – ischium; lp – lateral process; ns – neural spine; poap – postacetabular process; pp – pubic penducle; ppp – postpubic process; prap - preacetabular process; prc – preacetabular crest; prp – prepubic process; prs – preacetabular shelf; s1-4 – sacral vertebrae 1–4; sr – sacral rib(s); sra – sacral rib backing of acetabulum; vr – ventral ridge.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>851828, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Pelvis_of_Scelidosaurus_harrisoni_BMNH_R1111_/851828", "title"=>"Pelvis of <i>Scelidosaurus harrisoni</i> (BMNH R1111).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282331/Figure_4.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Views in: A, dorsal; B, ventral; C, medial; D, left lateral; E, anterior; and F, posterior. G, reconstruction of pelvis in dorsal view using the partial sacrum of MWC 2610 (not to scale with A–F). Scale in cm. Abbreviations: a – acetabulum; al – acetabular lamina; ip – ischial peduncle; lp – lateral process; pac – postacetabular crest; paf – postacetabular fossa; poap – postacetabular process; pp – pubic penducle; prap - preacetabular process; psr – preasacral vertebra rib.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ilium"], "article_id"=>851830, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Holotype_left_ilium_of_Mymoorapelta_maysii_MWC_1815_/851830", "title"=>"Holotype left ilium of <i>Mymoorapelta maysii</i> (MWC 1815).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282333/Figure_5.tif"], "description"=>"<p>A, right lateral view. B, ilium parts best fit on the ilium of <i>Stormbergia</i>. Scale in cm. Abbreviations: cd – caudal vertebrae; il – ilium fragments; is  =  ischium fragments; lft fe – left femur; pu – pubic fragments; prap - preacetabular process; rt fe – right femur; s – sacral vertebrae; sac – supra-acetebular crest.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pelvic"], "article_id"=>851832, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Holotype_pelvic_region_of_Scutellosaurus_lawleri_MNA_Pl_175_/851832", "title"=>"Holotype pelvic region of <i>Scutellosaurus lawleri</i> (MNA Pl. 175).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282334/Figure_6.tif"], "description"=>"<p>In the basal ornithischian condition, represented by <i>Stormbergia</i> (reconstructed), the ilia are near vertical plates of bone. In the earliest ankylosauromorph, respresented by <i>Scelidosaurus</i>, the dorsal rim of the iliac blade and postacetabulum have rotated towards the lateral side so as to overhang the femur head, and an incipient synsacrum developed. In addition, the elongation of the sacral ribs is accompanied by the medial rotation of the preacetabular process. In the earliest ankylosaur, represented by <i>Gargoyleosaurus</i>, the ilium has assumed a nearly horizontal position and a synsacrum was developed including both caudals and posterior dorsals. In contrast, the preacetabulum of <i>Mymoorapelta</i> curved ventrally for reasons not clear; regardless, this specialization suggests that <i>Mymoorapelta</i> is not the close sister taxon to later ankylosaurs. Further evolution of the ankylosaur pelvis resulted in divergence of the ilia, seen in nodosaurids, represented by <i>Edmontonia</i>, but especially in ankylosaurids, represented by <i>Euoplocephalus</i>. In addition, there was further elongation of the sacral ribs. Not to scale. See also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887#pone-0079887-g010\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 10</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ankylosaur", "pelvis", "approximated", "chronostratigraphic", "pelves", "seen", "dorsal"], "article_id"=>851833, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_The_origin_and_evolution_of_the_ankylosaur_pelvis_can_be_approximated_from_this_chronostratigraphic_distribution_of_various_pelves_seen_in_dorsal_view_/851833", "title"=>"The origin and evolution of the ankylosaur pelvis can be approximated from this chronostratigraphic distribution of various pelves seen in dorsal view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282335/Figure_7.tif"], "description"=>"<p>An analogous situation was reported for ceratopsids by Lehman <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887#pone.0079887-Lehman1\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a>. Additional changes include development of the lateral crest on the rim of the postacetabular process and greater development of the ischial peduncle. A, BMNH R6704; B, BMNH R1111; C, SGDS 131. Scale in cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ilia", "ventral", "angulation", "preacetabular"], "article_id"=>851834, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Ontogenetic_series_of_Scelidosaurus_ilia_showing_a_change_in_the_ventral_angulation_of_the_preacetabular_process_/851834", "title"=>"Ontogenetic series of <i>Scelidosaurus</i> ilia showing a change in the ventral angulation of the preacetabular process.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282336/Figure_8.tif"], "description"=>"<p>The two biggest changes seen are: 1) the rotation of the dorsal surface of the pubis (<i>Stormbergia</i>) so as to face laterally (<i>Scelidosaurus</i>); 2) slenderizing and shortening of the postpubic process between <i>Scelidosaurus</i> and <i>Gargoyleosaurus</i>. Scale in cm. A, B courtesy of R. Butler, Univ. Birmingham.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pubis", "ankylosaur", "illustrated", "lateral", "medial", "reversed"], "article_id"=>851835, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Modification_of_the_pubis_during_ankylosaur_origin_and_evolution_may_be_illustrated_by_Stormbergia_SAM_PR_K1105_in_right_lateral_A_and_medial_reversed_B_Scelidosaurus_BMNH_R1111_in_right_lateral_C_and_medial_reversed_D_Gargoyleosaurus_DMNH_27726_in_right/851835", "title"=>"Modification of the pubis during ankylosaur origin and evolution may be illustrated by <i>Stormbergia</i> (SAM-PR-K1105) in right lateral (A) and medial reversed (B); <i>Scelidosaurus</i> (BMNH R1111) in right lateral (C) and medial reversed (D); <i>Gargoyleosaurus</i> (DMNH 27726) in right lateral (E) and medial reversed (F); <i>Edmontonia</i> (USNM 11868) in right lateral (G) and medial reversed (H).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282338/Figure_9.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Views in: A, dorsal; B, right lateral; C, anterior; and D, posterior. Pelvis of the nodosaurid <i>Edmontonia</i>. <i>E. longiceps</i> (AMNH 5381) view in dorsal, E. <i>E. longiceps</i> (NMC 8531) in ventral, and F, lateral views. G Restored pelvis (neural spines restored from BHI 127327) mount and pubis from (USNM 11868). The ischium (NMC 8531) does not completely close the medial wall of the acetabulum, although it may have been blocked by the sacral yoke. Note how the preacetabular process overlies the presacral rib in C and F. Scale in cm. Abbreviations: a – acetabulum; cd – caudal vertebra; cdr – caudal rib; ip – ischial peduncle; is – ischium; lp – lateral process; ns – neural spines; p – pubis; pac – postacetabular crest; paf – postacetabular fossa; poap – postacetabular process; pp – pubic penducle; prap - preacetabular process; prc – preacetabular crest; prs – preacetabular shelf; ps3 – presacral vertebra 3; psr – presacral vertebrae ribs; sr – sacral rib(s). E, courtesy of K. Seymour, Nat. Mus. Canad.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ankylosaurid", "5337", "ischium"], "article_id"=>851837, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Pelvis_of_the_ankylosaurid_Euoplocephalus_tutus_AMNH_5337_with_ischium_added_to_B_/851837", "title"=>"Pelvis of the ankylosaurid <i>Euoplocephalus tutus</i> (AMNH 5337 with ischium added to B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282340/Figure_10.tif"], "description"=>"<p>The primitive ornithischian condition is represented by <i>Scutellosaurus</i> (modeled after <i>Stormbergia</i>) in dorsal (A), right lateral (B), anterior (C – with foreshortening of the ischium), and posterior (D) views. Black arrows denote the medial direction the preacetabular process would rotate to acquire the <i>Scelidosaurus</i> condition, and white arrows the lateral direction of the postacetabular process. Pelvis of <i>Scelidosaurus</i> in dorsal (E), right lateral (F), anterior (G – with foreshortening of the postpubic process and ischium), and posterior (H) views. Black arrows denote the medial direction the preacetabular process would rotate to acquire the <i>Gargoyleosaurus</i> condition, and white arrows the lateral direction of the postacetabular process. Pelvis of <i>Gargoyleosaurus</i> in dorsal (I), right lateral (J – with ischium of <i>Mymoorapelta</i>), anterior (K – with foreshortening of the ischium), and posterior (L) views. Subsequent changes from the <i>Gargoyleosaurus</i> condition in more advanced ankylosaurs (e.g., <i>Euoplocephalus</i> and <i>Edmontonia</i>) involve lateral expansion of the preacetabular process (black arrows) and postacetabular process (white arrows). Not to scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pelvic"], "article_id"=>851839, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_pelvic_changes_during_the_origin_and_early_evolution_of_the_ankylosaurs_/851839", "title"=>"Summary of the pelvic changes during the origin and early evolution of the ankylosaurs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282343/Figure_11.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Views in dorsal (A, E), ventral (B, F), right lateral (C, G) and posterior (D, H). Scales in cm. Abbreviations: a – acetabulum; bs – brevis shelf; cd1-3 – caudal vertebra 1 – 3; cdr – caudal rib; ip – ischial peduncle; lp – lateral process; ot – ossified tendons; pac – postacetaular crest; paf – postacetabular fossa; poap – postacetabular process; pp – pubic penducle; poap - postacetabular process; prap - preacetabular process; prc – preacetabular crest; ps1–6 – presacral vertebrae 1–6; s1–4 – sacral vertebrae 1–4; sr – sacral rib(s).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ilium", "seen", "quadrupedal", "typified"], "article_id"=>851842, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Horizontal_ilium_seen_in_other_quadrupedal_ornithischians_including_stegosaurs_typified_by_Hesperosaurus_mojsi_HMNH_001_and_neoceratopsians_typified_by_Chasmosaurus_belli_ANSP_15764_/851842", "title"=>"Horizontal ilium seen in other quadrupedal ornithischians, including stegosaurs, typified by <i>Hesperosaurus mojsi</i> (HMNH 001) and neoceratopsians, typified by <i>Chasmosaurus belli</i> (ANSP 15764).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282345/Figure_12.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Views: A, E right lateral; B, F medial; C, G dorsal; D, H ventral. Scale in cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dmnh", "33360", "dino"], "article_id"=>851844, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Juvenile_Stegosaurus_ilia_A_D_DMNH_33360_cast_of_DINO_2438_DMNH_33359_/851844", "title"=>"Juvenile <i>Stegosaurus</i> ilia: A–D, DMNH 33360 (cast of DINO 2438); DMNH 33359.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282347/Figure_13.tif"], "description"=>"<p>The process rotates dorsally very early in ontogeny (compare A with B, B with C). A, DMNH 33359; B, DMNH 33360; D, DMNH 1438. Scales in cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["lateral", "seen"], "article_id"=>851846, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Ontogenetic_change_in_the_position_of_the_lateral_process__supra_acetabular_process_in_Stegosaurus_stenops_as_seen_from_the_rear_/851846", "title"=>"Ontogenetic change in the position of the lateral process ( = supra-acetabular process) in <i>Stegosaurus stenops</i> as seen from the rear.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1282349/Figure_14.tif"], "description"=>"<p>A, lateral extension of the preacetabular process and development of a medial process in the pachycephalosaurid <i>Homalocephale</i> (IGM 100/51); B, lateral development of the lateral iliac crest and lateral process along the dorsal margin in the hadrosaur <i>Edmontosaurus</i> (BHI 126,414); C, lateral folding of the supra-acetabular portion ( = dorsal plate) of the ilium in the rhabdodontid <i>Zalmoxes</i> (modified from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887#pone.0079887-Godefroit1\" target=\"_blank\">[53]</a>). The most common modification is the lateral folding of the postacetabular process as seen in: D, <i>Camptosaurus</i> (CMNH 11337); E, <i>Planicoxa venenica</i> (DMNH 42,504); F, <i>Planicoxa depressus</i> (USNM 4759); G, <i>Thescelosaurus</i> (AMNH FR117). This folding is too similar among different taxa and specimens to be due to crushing. Scale bars  = 10 cm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["iliac", "modification", "non-ceratopsian", "Ornithischians", "dorsal", "lateral"], "article_id"=>851848, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Kenneth Carpenter", "Tony DiCroce", "Billy Kinneer", "Robert Simon"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079887.g014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_iliac_modification_in_a_variety_of_non_thyreophoran_non_ceratopsian_ornithischians_in_dorsal_top_and_lateral_bottom_views_/851848", "title"=>"Examples of iliac modification in a variety of non-thyreophoran, non-ceratopsian ornithischians in dorsal (top) and lateral (bottom) views.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-14 05:00:49"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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