Effect of GA3 Treatment on Seed Development and Seed-Related Gene Expression in Grape
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Effect of GA3 Treatment on Seed Development and Seed-Related Gene Expression in Grape", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Chenxia", "last_name"=>"Cheng"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaozhao", "last_name"=>"Xu"}, {"first_name"=>"Stacy D.", "last_name"=>"Singer"}, {"first_name"=>"Jun", "last_name"=>"Li"}, {"first_name"=>"Hongjing", "last_name"=>"Zhang"}, {"first_name"=>"Min", "last_name"=>"Gao"}, {"first_name"=>"Li", "last_name"=>"Wang"}, {"first_name"=>"Junyang", "last_name"=>"Song"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiping", "last_name"=>"Wang"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24224035", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0080044", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"8e4f61cb-43c1-3488-b905-df5e0af9cd25", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3) is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe'), along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless'), following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF), both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effect-ga3-treatment-seed-development-seedrelated-gene-expression-grape", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Uruguay"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268376"], "description"=>"<p>(A and B) Normal embryo sacs with macrospore cells from untreated control (A) and treated (B) ovules 5 days after treatment; (C and D) egg cells and two synergids from untreated control (C) and treated (D) mature embryo sacs 9 days after treatment (D-1 and D-2 were contiguous sections); (E and F) zygotes from untreated control (E) and treated (F) seeds 17 days after treatment; (G and H) seeds with abnormal embryo sacs from treated grapes 17 days after treatment (G) and 21 days after treatment (3 DAF) (H); (I and J) normal zygotes from untreated control (I) and treated (J) seeds 21 days after treatment (3 DAF); (K and L) endosperm nuclei from untreated control (K) and treated (L) seeds 27 days after treatment (9 DAF); (M and N) embryo sac with endosperm nuclei from an untreated control seed (M) and abnormal embryo sac from a treated seed (N) 33 days after treatment (15 DAF); (O and P) early globular embryo from untreated control seed (O) and abnormal embryo sac from treated seed (P) 36 days after treatment (18 DAF). Scale bar = 100 μm, e: egg cell, en: endosperm nuclei, g: globular embryo, s: synergid, z: zygote.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["untreated"], "article_id"=>841920, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chenxia Cheng", "Xiaozhao Xu", "Stacy D. Singer", "Jun Li", "Hongjing Zhang", "Min Gao", "Li Wang", "Junyang Song", "Xiping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seed_development_in_untreated_control_and_GA_3_treated_8216_Kyoho_8217_grape_/841920", "title"=>"Seed development in untreated control and GA<sub>3</sub>-treated ‘Kyoho’ grape.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268371"], "description"=>"<p>Berry weight (a), seed weight (b), berry transverse diameter (c) and berry longitudinal diameter (d) in ‘Kyoho’ (A) and ‘Red Globe’ (B) cultivars. Photos are representative of untreated control and treated berries and seeds at 3 DAF (21 days after treatment in ‘Kyoho’ and 19 days after treatment in ‘Red Globe’) (e), 15 DAF (33 days after treatment in ‘Kyoho’ and 31 days after treatment in ‘Red Globe’) (f) and 27 DAF (45 days after treatment in ‘Kyoho’ and 43 days after treatment in ‘Red Globe’) (g); (C) Berry weight (a), seed weight (b), berry transverse diameter (c) and berry longitudinal diameter (d) in the ‘Thompson Seedless’ cultivar. Photos are representative of untreated control and treated berries and seeds at 3 DAF (19 days after treatment) (e), 9 DAF (25 days after treatment) (f) and 15 DAF (31 days after treatment) (g). Vertical bars indicate standard errors. Asterisks indicate significant differences between GA<sub>3</sub> treated and untreated control samples (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, Student’s t–test). In each column, the first and second photos represent untreated control and GA<sub>3</sub>-treated berries, respectively, the third and fourth photos represent longitudinal sections of untreated control and GA<sub>3</sub>-treated berries, respectively, and the fifth and sixth photo represent untreated control and GA<sub>3</sub>-treated seeds, respectively. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["berries"], "article_id"=>841915, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chenxia Cheng", "Xiaozhao Xu", "Stacy D. Singer", "Jun Li", "Hongjing Zhang", "Min Gao", "Li Wang", "Junyang Song", "Xiping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_GA_3_treatment_on_the_shape_and_size_of_8216_Kyoho_8217_8216_Red_Globe_8217_and_8216_Thompson_Seedless_8217_berries_and_seeds_/841915", "title"=>"Effect of GA<sub>3</sub> treatment on the shape and size of ‘Kyoho’, ‘Red Globe’ and ‘Thompson Seedless’ berries and seeds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268387"], "description"=>"<p>(A-C) H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> accumulation in ‘Kyoho’ (A), ‘Red Globe’ (B) and ‘Thompson Seedless’ (C) cultivars; (D-F) MDA accumulation in ‘Kyoho’ (D), ‘Red Globe’ (E) and ‘Thompson Seedless’ (F) cultivars; (G-I) SOD activity in ‘Kyoho’ (G), ‘Red Globe’ (H) and ‘Thompson Seedless’ (I) cultivars; (J-K) CAT activity in ‘Kyoho’ (J); ‘Red Globe’ (K) and ‘Thompson Seedless’ (L) cultivars; (M-O) POD activity in ‘Kyoho’ (M), ‘Red Globe’ (N) and ‘Thompson Seedless’ (O) cultivars. Data points represent the mean ± SE of at least three replicates. Asterisks indicate significant differences between GA<sub>3</sub>-treated and untreated control samples from the same cultivar (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, Student’s t –test). </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mda", "antioxidant", "enzyme"], "article_id"=>841929, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chenxia Cheng", "Xiaozhao Xu", "Stacy D. Singer", "Jun Li", "Hongjing Zhang", "Min Gao", "Li Wang", "Junyang Song", "Xiping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_H_2_O_2_and_MDA_accumulation_as_well_as_antioxidant_enzyme_activities_after_GA_3_treatment_/841929", "title"=>"Changes in H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and MDA accumulation, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities, after GA<sub>3</sub> treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268440", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268441", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268442", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268443", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268444", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268445", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268446"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA<sub>3</sub>) is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes.</p> <p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA<sub>3</sub>-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars (‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’), along with a seedless cultivar (‘Thompson Seedless’), following treatment with GA<sub>3</sub>. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA<sub>3</sub>-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF), both ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Red Globe’ seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA<sub>3</sub>. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA<sub>3</sub> treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA<sub>3</sub> application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA<sub>3</sub>-treated and untreated controls.</p> <p>Conclusion</p><p>Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA<sub>3</sub>-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA<sub>3</sub>-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["seed-related"], "article_id"=>841959, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chenxia Cheng", "Xiaozhao Xu", "Stacy D. Singer", "Jun Li", "Hongjing Zhang", "Min Gao", "Li Wang", "Junyang Song", "Xiping Wang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>24, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effect_of_GA_3_Treatment_on_Seed_Development_and_Seed_Related_Gene_Expression_in_Grape_/841959", "title"=>"Effect of GA<sub>3</sub> Treatment on Seed Development and Seed-Related Gene Expression in Grape", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268383"], "description"=>"<p>(A and B) Normal embryo sacs with macrospore cells from untreated control (A) and treated (B) ovules 5 days after treatment; (C and D) mitotic macrospore cell with premature embryo sac from untreated control (C) and an egg cell, two synergids and polar nucleus from treated ovule (D) 9 days after treatment (D-1 and D-2 were contiguous sections); (E and F) zygotes from untreated control (E) and treated (F) seeds 17 days after treatment (1 DAF); (G and H) abnormal endosperm nuclei from treated grape (G) and embryo with degrading embryo sac from treated grape (H) 17 days after treatment (1 DAF); (I and J) normal zygote from untreated control seed (I) and abnormal embryo sac from treated seed (J) 25 days after treatment (9 DAF); (K and L) endosperm nuclei from untreated control seed (K) and abnormal treated seed (L) 31 days after treatment (15 DAF). Scale bar = 100 μm, e: egg cell, en: endosperm nuclei, p: polar nucleus, s: synergid, z: zygote.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["untreated"], "article_id"=>841926, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chenxia Cheng", "Xiaozhao Xu", "Stacy D. Singer", "Jun Li", "Hongjing Zhang", "Min Gao", "Li Wang", "Junyang Song", "Xiping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Seed_development_in_untreated_control_and_GA_3_treated_8216_Thompson_Seedless_8217_grape_/841926", "title"=>"Seed development in untreated control and GA<sub>3</sub>-treated ‘Thompson Seedless’ grape.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268395"], "description"=>"<p>Results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays were quantified using GeneTools software, and log-transformed values of the relative expression levels of genes involved in seed development following GA<sub>3</sub> treatments compared to untreated controls were used for hierarchical cluster analysis. The color scale represents relative expression levels with red denoting up-regulation and green denoting down-regulation. Sampling times are indicated at the top of the figure; F represents floral tissue; K represents the ‘Kyoho’ cultivar; S represents seed tissue; R represents the ‘Red Globe’ cultivar; T represents the ‘Thompson seedless’ cultivar. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clustering", "genes", "cultivars"], "article_id"=>841937, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chenxia Cheng", "Xiaozhao Xu", "Stacy D. Singer", "Jun Li", "Hongjing Zhang", "Min Gao", "Li Wang", "Junyang Song", "Xiping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hierarchical_clustering_of_genes_related_to_seed_development_in_three_grape_cultivars_following_GA_3_treatment_/841937", "title"=>"Hierarchical clustering of genes related to seed development in three grape cultivars following GA<sub>3</sub> treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1268392"], "description"=>"<p>Results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays were quantified using GeneTools software, and log-transformed values of the relative expression levels of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes following GA<sub>3</sub> treatment compared to untreated controls were used for hierarchical cluster analysis. The color scale represents relative expression levels with red denoting up-regulation and green denoting down-regulation. Sampling times are indicated at the top of the figure; F represents floral tissue; K represents the ‘Kyoho’ cultivar; R represents the ‘Red Globe’ cultivar; T represents the ‘Thompson seedless’ cultivar. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clustering", "antioxidant", "flowers", "cultivars"], "article_id"=>841934, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Chenxia Cheng", "Xiaozhao Xu", "Stacy D. Singer", "Jun Li", "Hongjing Zhang", "Min Gao", "Li Wang", "Junyang Song", "Xiping Wang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080044.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hierarchical_clustering_of_antioxidant_gene_expression_in_the_flowers_of_three_grape_cultivars_following_GA_3_treatment_/841934", "title"=>"Hierarchical clustering of antioxidant gene expression in the flowers of three grape cultivars following GA<sub>3</sub> treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-05 02:50:19"}

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Relative Metric

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